La percepción de los alumnos como indicador de inclusión educativa

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5944/educxx1.30198

Palabras clave:

percepción de los alumnos, aceptación de iguales, técnicas sociométricas, inclusión, estudiantes con necesidades educativas especiales, educacion primaria

Resumen

El principal objetivo de este estudio ha sido analizar la relación entre la percepción de los alumnos de sus centros educativos, en cuanto a centros inclusivos, y el estatus sociométrico de los mismos. Para ello se contó con una muestra de 881 alumnos pertenecientes a 43 aulas de primaria (de 6 a 12 años) de diferentes niveles educativos, entre los cuales se encontraban 98 alumnos con necesidades específicas de apoyo educativo (11,12%), todos ellos escolarizados en centros educativos ordinarios de la región de Extremadura (España). Para analizar el estatus sociométrico se utilizó un cuestionario basado en el método de nominación de iguales y la asociación de atributos. Para valorar la percepción de los alumnos de sus centros educativos se utilizó el Cuestionario sobre el Punto de Vista de los Niños extraído del Index for Inclusion (Booth, Ainscow y Kingston, 2006). El estudio mostró que la percepción que tienen los alumnos de sus centros educativos, tanto si éstos tienen necesidades específicas de apoyo educativo como si no, está significativamente asociada a su estatus sociométrico, y más concretamente, al rechazo que reciben en sus clases por parte de sus iguales. También indicó que los estudiantes con necesidades específicas de apoyo educativo se ven más apoyados por los profesores que por sus compañeros. Todo ello nos lleva a reflexionar sobre si las medidas organizativas que adoptan las escuelas para dar respuesta a las necesidades educativas puedan afectar a su inclusión. De ahí, la necesidad de evaluar periódicamente las estrategias de agrupamiento y la percepción de los alumnos de sus centros educativos.

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Citas

Adams, D., Harris, A., & Jones, M.S. (2016). Teacher-parent collaboration for an inclusive classroom: Success for every child. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 4 (3), 58-74. https://mojes.um.edu.my/article/view/12657/8148

Ainscow, M. (2016). Diversity and equity: A global education challenge. New Zealand. Journal of Educational Studies, 51(2), 143–155. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40841-016-0056-x

Akin, D., & Huang, L. M. (2019). Perceptions of college students with disabilities. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 32(1), 21-33. http://www.ahead.org/publications/jped

Alborno, N. E., & Gaad, E. (2014). "Index for inclusion": A framework for school review in the United Arab Emirates. British Journal of Special Education, 41(3), 231-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8578.12073

Amr, M., Al-Natour, M., Al-Abdallat, B., & Alkhamra, H. (2016). Primary school teachers´s knowledge, attitudes and views on barriers to inclusion in Jordan. International Journal of Special Education, 31(1), 67-77. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1099989.pdf

Ávila, M. (2017). Calidad y equidad educativa: La educación inclusiva como derecho. https://bit.ly/3mpR5Ij

Baydik, B., & Bakkaloglu, H. (2009). Predictors of sociometric status for low socioeconomic status elementary mainstreamed students with and without special needs. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 9(2), 435-47. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ847760.pdf

Blandon, A. Y., Calkins, S. D., Grimm, K. J., Keane, S. P., & O’Brien, M. (2010). Testing a developmental cascade model of emotional and social competence and early peer acceptance. Development and Psychopathology, 22(1), 737-748. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579410000428

Booth, T., Ainscow, M., & Kingston, D. (2006). Index for Inclusion: developing play, learning, and participation in early years and childcare. Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education (CSIE). https://bit.ly/3DjEr4J

Crouch, R., Keys, C. B., & McMahon, S. D. (2014). Student–teacher relationships matter for school inclusion: School belonging, disability, and school transitions. Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community, 42 (1), 20-30. https://doi.org/10.1080/10852352.2014.855054

DeRosier, M., & Thomas, J. M. (2003). Strengthening sociometric prediction: scientific advances in the assessment of children´s peer relations. Child Development, 74(5), 1379-1392. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00613

De Vroey, A., Struyf, E., & Petry, K. (2016). Secondary schools included: A literature review. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 20(2), 109-135. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2015.1075609

Díaz-Aguado, M.J. (2006). Del acoso escolar a la cooperación en las aulas. Pearson.

García-Bacete, F. J. (2006). La identificación de los alumnos rechazados. Comparación de métodos sociométricos de nominaciones bidimensionales. Infancia y Aprendizaje, 29(4), 437-451. https://doi.org/10.1174/021037006778849585

González-Gil, F., Gómez-Vela, M., & Jenaro, C. (2007). Traducción y adaptación del Index para la inclusión. Desarrollo del juego, el aprendizaje y la participación en educación infantil. Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education (CSIE). https://bit.ly/3AeNDFx

Haug, P. (2017). Understanding inclusive education: ideals and reality. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 19(3), 206-217. https://doi.org/10.1080/15017419.2016.1224778

Héctor, S., & Olivarez, A. (1995). A meta-analysis of peer rating sociometric studies with pupils with learning disabilities. The Journal of Special Education, 29(1), 1-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002246699502900101

Hodson, P., Baddeley, A., Laycock, S., & Williams, S. (2005). Helping Secondary Schools to Be More Inclusive of Year 7 Pupils with SEN. Educational Psychology in Practice, 21(1), 53-67.

Krampač, A., & Kolak, A. (2018). Peer relations in inclusive classes. Research in Pedagogy, 8(1), 17-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.17810/2015.68

Kwon, K., Hong, S., & Jeon, H. (2017). Classroom readiness for successful inclusion: Teacher factors and preschool children’s experience with and attitudes toward peers with disabilities. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 31(3), 360–378. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02568543.2017.1309480

Lancaster, J., & Bain, A. (2019). Designing university courses to improve pre-service teachers' pedagogical content knowledge of evidence-based inclusive practice. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 44(2), 51-65.

Ley Orgánica 2/2006, de 3 de mayo, de Educación (LOE). Boletín Oficial del Estado, 4 de mayo de 2006, núm. 106, 1-112. https://www.boe.es/buscar/pdf/2006/BOE-A-2006-7899-consolidado.pdf

Lindner, K., Alnahdi, G., Wahl, S., & Schwab, S. (2019). Personalization teaching approaches in inclusive classrooms: perspectives of students and teachers. Frontiers in Education, 4(58), 1-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2019.00058

Martín, E., Muñoz de Bustillo, M.C., & Pérez, N. (2011). Las relaciones de amistad en la escuela de los menores en acogimiento residencial. Revista de Psicodidáctica, 6(2), 351-366. https://www.redalyc.org/pdf/175/17518828005.pdf

Moliner, O., Arnaiz, P., & Sanahuja, A. (2020). Rompiendo la brecha entre teoría y práctica: ¿Qué estrategias utiliza el profesorado universitario para movilizar el conocimiento sobre educación inclusiva? Educación XX1, 23(1), 173-195. https://doi.org/10.5944/educXX1.23753

Nepi, L. D., Fioravanti, J., Nannini, P., & Peru, A. (2015). Social acceptance and the choosing of favourite classmates: a comparison between students with special educational needs and typically developing students in a context of full inclusion. British Journal of Special Education, 42(3), 320-337. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8578.12096

Ng, C. K. M., & Yuen, M. (2011). The perceived school climate in invitational schools in Hong Kong: Using the Chinese version of the Inviting School Survey-Revised (ISS-R). Journal of Invitational Theory and Practice, 17, 11-21. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ974509.pdf

Odongo, G., & Davidson, R. (2016). Examining the attitudes and concerns of the Kenyan teachers toward the inclusion of children with disabilities in the general education classroom: A mixed methods study. International Journal of Special Education, 31(2), 1-30. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1111087.pdf

Perolli-Shehu, B. (2019). Peer acceptance in early childhood: Links to socio-economic status and social competence, Journal of Social Studies Education Research, 10(4), 176-200. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1241768.pdf

Pijl, S. J., Frostad, P., & Flem, A. (2008). The social position of pupils with special needs in regular schools. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 52(4), 387-405. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313830802184558

Prince, E. J., & Hadwin, J. (2013). The role of a sense of school belonging in understanding the effectiveness of inclusion of children with special educational needs. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 17(3), 238-262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2012.676081

Purkey, W., & Novak, J. (2016). Fundamentals of invitational education (2nd ed.). International Alliance for Invitational Education.

Ramberg, J., & Watjins, A. (2020). Exploring inclusive education across Europe: some insights from the European agency statistics on inclusive education. FIRE, Forum for International Research in Education, 6(1), 85-101. https://doi.org/10.32865/fire202061172

Rose, K. K., Barahona, D., & Muro, J. (2017). Peer perceptions of students receiving pull-out services in elementary school: A multi-age study. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 21(4), 376-388. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2016.1197323

Rose, R., & Shevlin, M. (2017). A sense of belonging: Children´s views of acceptance in “inclusive” mainstream schools, International Journal of Whole Schooling, Special Issue, 13(1), 65-80. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1142322

Saloviita, T. (2020) Attitudes of teachers towards inclusive education in Finland, Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 64(2) 270-282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2018.1541819

Scholes, L., Lunn Brownlee, J., Walker, S., Johansson, E., Lawson, V., & Mascadri, J. (2017). Promoting social inclusion in the early years of elementary school: a focus on children's epistemic beliefs for moral reasoning. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 21(5), 507-520. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2016.1223181

Schwab, S. (2018). Friendship stability among students with and without special educational needs. Educational Studie, 45(3), 390-401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03055698.2018.1509774.

Schwab, S., Sharma, U., & Hoffmann, L. (2019). How inclusive are the teaching practices of my German, Maths and English teachers? Psychometric properties of a newly developed scale to assess personalisation and differentiation in teaching practices. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 1-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2019.1629121

Shogren, K. A., Gross, J.M., Forber-Pratt, A.J., Francis, G. L. Satter, A., Blue-Banning, M., & Hill, C. (2015).The perspectives of students with and without disabilities on inclusive schools. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 40(4), 243–260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1540796915583493

Stites, M., Rakes, C., Noggle, A., & Sha, S. (2018). Preservice teacher perceptions of preparedness to teach in inclusive settings as an indicator of teacher preparation program effectiveness. Discourse and Communication for Sustainable Education, 9(2), 21-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/dcse-2018-0012

Van der Wilt, F., Van der Veen, Ch., Van Kruistum, C., & Van Oers, B. (2020). Language abilities and peer rejection in kindergarten: A mediation analysis. Early Education and Development, 31(2), 269-283. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/10409289.2019.1624145

Vignes, C., Godeau, E., Sentenac, M., Coley, N., Navarro, F., Grandjean, M., & Arnaud, C. (2009). Determinants of students´ attitudes towards peers with disabilities. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 51, 473-479. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2009.03283.x

Wallace, T. L., Kelcey, B., & Ruzek, E. (2016). What can student perception surveys tell us about teaching? Empirically testing the underlying structure of the tripod student perception survey. American Educational Research Journal, 53, 1834–1868. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831216671864

Wendelborg, C., & Tossebro, J. (2011). Educational arrangements and social participation with peers amongst children with disabilities in regular schools. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 15(5), 497-512. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603110903131739

Publicado

2022-01-03

Número

Sección

Estudios