Transición a educación superior y evaluación: un estudio longitudinal anual

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5944/educxx1.29870

Palabras clave:

transición a educación superior, adaptación a educación superior, evaluación en clase, autorregulación del aprendizaje, emoción y motivación

Resumen

La formación universitaria exige a los estudiantes ser más autónomos y cambiar a un nuevo entorno de aprendizaje. Esta es una de las razones por la que muchos estudiantes viven una experiencia desafiante en esta etapa y hay altas tasas de abandono en el primer año de estudios. Distintas investigaciones han señalado variables académicas, sociodemográficas, psicológicas y socioculturales que pueden explicar la adaptación a este entorno. En estas, se ha indicado la importancia de hacer más estudios longitudinales. En este estudio longitudinal, 148 participantes rellenaron un diario de aprendizaje/encuesta semanal y bisemanalmente durante su primer año de universidad, reportando su satisfacción, los retos percibidos, y la evolución de sus emociones, motivación y estrategias de aprendizaje. Se extraen tres conclusiones principales de los datos. Primero, los niveles de satisfacción y los retos reportados fluctuaron a lo largo del curso, mostrando distintas fases por las que pasan los estudiantes. Segundo, las actividades de evaluación (e.g., exámenes) fueron el principal factor que producía una reducción de valores positivos y un incremento de valores negativos en la valencia emocional. Tercero, los participantes reportaron estrategias de adquisición y procesamiento de la información (e.g., elaborar resúmenes), en contraste con un bajo reporte de estrategias de autorregulación, con una posible influencia de las prácticas de evaluación. El artículo finaliza recomendando algunas acciones para mejorar la transición a la educación superior, por ejemplo, con actividades de evaluación más formativas y el diseño de programas de intervención para ayudar al alumnado a organizar su actividad en el nuevo entorno.

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Citas

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Publicado

2022-06-29

Número

Sección

Estudios