La asociación entre acoso y ciberacoso escolar y el efecto predictor de la desconexión moral: una revisión bibliométrica basada en la teoría de grafos

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5944/educxx1.29995

Palabras clave:

población en edad escolar, violencia, agresión, desarrollo moral, empatía

Resumen

El objetivo del estudio fue analizar la producción científica y la evidencia empírica sobre la relación entre acoso y ciberacoso y el efecto predictor de la desconexión moral en niños(as) y adolescentes. La búsqueda bibliográfica se efectuó en Scopus y Web of Science. Para el análisis se utilizó bibliometrix, Sci2 Tool y Gephi. Se encontró que, entre el año 2000 y 2020, la producción científica se incrementó entre un 29% y un 53%. El análisis de clúster mostró tres perspectivas de investigación. La primera estuvo enfocada al análisis de las diferencias y similitudes entre el acoso y ciberacoso. Se discutió si el acoso y el ciberacoso son un mismo fenómeno. Se encontró que las intenciones, motivaciones, la tendencia a la repetición de la conducta, los perfiles y roles de poder de los intimidadores son diferentes en el acoso y el ciberacoso. La segunda estuvo enfocada al análisis de los efectos de la desconexión moral sobre el acoso escolar. Se encontró que la activación de la desconexión moral por parte de las víctimas son un factor de riesgo para modelar conductas de intimidación en el futuro. Las dinámicas sociales del grupo, las relaciones de amistad y la empatía fueron factores que median y moderan la asociación entre la desconexión moral y el acoso escolar. La última perspectiva se orientó al análisis de los efectos de la desconexión moral sobre el ciberacoso. Se encontró que la desconexión moral es un predictor de la victimización e intimidación por ciberacoso. La tendencia empática, la identidad moral, los rasgos de ira, el clima escolar y la amabilidad son factores que median y moderan los efectos de la desconexión moral sobre el ciberacoso. Se concluye que el acoso y ciberacoso son el resultado de la influencia de factores socio morales, emocionales y relacionales.

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2022-01-03

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Estudios