De la teoria del apego a la psicoterapia

Autores/as

  • Giovanni Liotti Psiquiatra, Psicoterapueta. Docente de la Scuola di Formazione in Psicoterapia della Associazione di Psicologia Cognitiva (A.P.C.) Viale Castro Pretorio, 116-00189 Roma, Italia. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0176-266X

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33898/rdp.v12i48.552

Palabras clave:

teoría del apego, evolucionismo, modelos operativos internos, regulación de las emociones, apego y cognición, psicoterapia

Resumen

El presente artículo se propone hacer una revisión de los temas teóricos y empíricos ligados a la teoría del apego y a la investigación que de ella se deriva, focalizándose en sus aplicaciones psicoterapéuticas pero sin hacer referencia a ninguno de los principales modelos de psicoterapia actuales (psicoanálisis, terapia cognitiva, terapia familiar). Se analizan en detalle, debido a sus repercusiones en el praxis clínica del psicoterapeuta: (1) las bases evolucionistas de la teoría del apego, (2) la dialéctica existente entre los diferentes tipos y dimensiones del apego (en especial, la desorganización del apego), (3) los aspectos de la teoría relacionados con la cognición humana, el desarrollo y organización de la personalidad y (4) la regulación de las emociones. Y finalmente se analiza cómo una psicoterapia basada sobre la teoría del apego debe situarse en el marco de un debate entre el pensamiento moderno y postmoderno en psicoterapia.

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Citas

Ainsworth, M.D.S., Blehar, M.C., Waters, E. &Wall S. (1978) Patterns of attachment. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Amini F., Lewis T., Lannon R., Louie A., Baumbacher G., McGuinnes T. & Zirker E. (1996) Affect, attachment, memory: Contributions toward psychobiologic integration. Psychiatry, 59, 213-239.

Anderson, C.L. & Alexander, P.C. (1996) The relationship between attachment and dissociation in adult survivors of incest. Psychiatry, 59, 240-254.

Bara, B. (1996), Manuale di psicoterapia cognitiva. Torino: Bollati Boringhieri.

Baron-Cohen, S. (1995) Mindblindness: An essay on autism and the theory of mind. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Bateman, A.W. & Fonagy, P. (1999) Effectiveness of partial hospitalization in the treatment of borderline personality disorder: A randomised control trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 1563-1569.

Bateman, A.W. & Fonagy, P. (2001) Treatment of borderline personality disorder with psychoanalytically oriented partial hospitalization. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 36-42.

Bohus, M., Haaf, B., Stiglmayr, C. & Linehan, M. (2000) Evaluation of inpatient dialectical-behavioural therapy for borderline personality disorder: A prospective study. Behavior Research and Therapy, 38, pp. 875-887.

Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment and Loss. Vol. 1: Attachment. London: Hogarth Press.

Bowlby, J. (1972) Attachment and Loss. Vol. 2: Separation. London: Hogarth Press.

Bowlby, J. (1979) The making and breaking of affectional bonds. London: Tavistock.

Bowlby, J. (1980) Attachment and Loss. Vol. 3: Loss. London: Hogarth Press.

Bowlby, J. (1988) A secure base. London: Routledge.

Bowlby, J. (1990) Charles Darwin: A new biography. London: Hutchinson.

Buber, M. (1923) Ich un Du. In “Das dialogische Prinzip“. Heidelberg: Lambert Schneider.

Bretherton, I. (1991) The roots and growing points of attachment theory. In C.M. Parkes, J. Stevenson-Hinde & P. Marris (Eds.), Attachment across the life cycle. London: Routledge.

Bretherton, I. & Munholland, K.A. (1999) Internal Working Models in attachment relationships: A construct revisited. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P.R. (Eds.), Handbook of attachment. New York: Guilford Press.

Byng-Hall, J. (1999) Couple and family therapy. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P.R. (Eds.), Handbook of attachment. New York: Guilford Press.

Carlson, E.A. (1998), A prospective longitudinal study of disorganized/ disoriented attachment. Child Development, 69, 1970-1979.

Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P.R. (Eds.) (1999) Handbook of attachment. New York: Guilford Press.

Coe, M.T., Daleenberg, C.J., Aransky, K.M. & Reto, C.S. (1995) Adult attachment style, reported childhood violence history and types of dissociative experiences. Dissociation, 8, 142-154.

Cortina, M. (1999) Causality, adaptation and meaning: A perspective from attachment theory and research. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 9, 557-596.

Crittenden, P.M. (1995) Attachment and psychopathology. In S. Goldberg, R. Muir & J. Kerr (Eds.), Attachment Theory: Social, developmental and clinical perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.

Crittenden, P.M. (1999) Attaccamento in età adulta. Milano: Raffaello Cortina Editore.

Eagle, M. (1987) The psychoanalytic and the cognitive unconscious. In R. Stern (Ed.) Theories of the unconscious and theories of the self. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.

Edelman, G. M. (1989) The Remembered Present: A Biological Theory of Consciousness. New York: Basic Books.

de Zulueta, F. (1993) From pain to violence: The traumatic origins of human desctructiveness. London: Routledge.

Flavell, J.H. (1963) The developmental psychology of Jean Piaget. New York: Van Nostrand.

Fonagy, P. (1999a) Psychoanalytic theory from the perspective of attachment theory and research. In J. Cassidy & P.R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment. New York: Guilford Press.

Fonagy, P. (1999b) The transgenerational transmission of holocaust trauma: Lessons learned from the analysis of an adolescent with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Attachment & Human Development., 1, 92-115.

Fonagy, P., Steele, M., Steele, H., Leigh, T., Kennedy R., Mattoon, G. & Target, M. (1995) Attachment, the reflective self, and borderline states. In S. Goldberg, R. Muir & J. Kerr (Eds.), Attachment Theory: Social, developmental and clinical perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press.

Fraley, R.C. & Waller, N.G. (1998) Adult attachment patterns: A test of the typological model. In J.A. Simpson, W.S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships (p.77-113). New York: Guilford Press.

Gilbert, P. (1989) Human nature and suffering. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Gilbert, P. (2000) Social mentalities: Internal “social” conflict and the role of inner warmth and compassion in cognitive therapy. In: P. Gilbert & K. Bailey (Eds.), Genes on the couch: Explorations in evolutionary psychotherapy. London: Brunner/Routledge.

Guidano, V.F. & Liotti, G. (1983) Cognitive processes and the emotional disorders. New York: Guilford Press.

Hesse, E. (1999) The Adult Attachment Interview. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P.R. (Eds.), Handbook of attachment. New York: Guilford.

Hesse, E. & Van Ijzendoorn, M. (1998) Parental loss of close family member and propensities towards absorbtion in the offspring. Developmental Science, 1, pp. 299-305.

Liotti, G. (1986) Structural cognitive therapy. In W. Dryden & W. Golden (Eds.), Cognitive-behavioural approaches to psychotherapy. London: Harper & Row.

Liotti, G. (1992) Disorganized/disoriented attachment in the etiology of the dissociative disorders. Dissociation, 5, 196-204.

Liotti, G. (1994) La dimensione interpersonale della coscienza. Roma: NIS. (Terza ristampa: Roma: Carocci Editore, 2000).

Liotti, G. (1995) Disorganized / disoriented attachment in the psychotherapy of the dissociative disorders. In S. Goldberg, R. Muir & J. Kerr (Eds.), Attachment Theory: Social, developmental and clinical perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.

Liotti, G. (1999a) Disorganization of attachment as a model for understanding dissociative psychopathology. In J. Solomon & C. George (Eds.), Attachment disorganization. New York: Guilford Press.

Liotti, G. (1999b) Understanding the dissociative processes: The contribution of attachment theory. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 19, 757-783.

Liotti, G. (1999c) Il nucleo del disturbo borderline di personalità: Una ipotesi integrativa. Psicoterapia, 16, pp. 53-65.

Liotti, G. (2000a) Disorganised attachment, models of borderline states, and evolutionary psychotherapy. In: P. Gilbert & K. Bailey (Eds.), Genes on the couch: Explorations in evolutionary psychotherapy. London: Brunner/Routledge.

Liotti, G. (2000b) Tipi e dimensioni dell’attaccamento nella terapia cognitiva. Psicobiettivo, 20 (3), 17-32.

Liotti, G. (2001) Le opere della coscienza: Psicopatologia e psicoterapia nella prospettiva cognitivo-evoluzionista. Milano: Raffaello Cortina Editore.

Liotti, G. & Intreccialagli, B. (1996) Los sistemas comportamentales interpersonales en la relación terapéutica. Revista de Psicoterapia, 26, 13-24.

Liotti, G. & Intreccialagli, B. (1998) Metacognition and motivational systems in psychotherapy. In C. Perris, P.D. McGorry (Eds.), Cognitive psychotherapy of psychotic and personality disorders. New York: Wiley.

Liotti, G., Intreccialagli, B. & Cecere, F. (1991) Esperienza di lutto nella madre e predisposizione ai disturbi dissociativi della prole: Uno studio caso-controllo. Rivista di Psichiatria, 26, 283-291.

Liotti, G., Pasquini, P., & The Italian Group for the Study of DIssociation (2000). Predictive factors for borderline personality disorder: Patients’ early traumatic experiences and losses suffered by the attachment figure. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 102, 282-289.

Linehan, M. M. (1993) Cognitive-behavioral treatment for borderline personality disorder. New York: Guilford Press.

Lyons-Ruth, K. & Jacobvitz, D. (1999) Attachment disorganization: Unresolved loss, relational violence and lapses in behavioral and attentional strategies. In J. Cassidy & P.R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment. New York: Guilford Press.

Main, M. (1991) Metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive monitoring, and singular (coherent) versus multiple (incoherent) models of attachment. In C.M. Parkes, J. Stevenson-Hinde & P. Marris (Eds.), Attachment across the life cycle. London: Routledge.

Main, M. (1995) Recent studies in attachment: Overview, with selected implications for clinical work. In S. Goldberg, R. Muir & J. Kerr (Eds.), Attachment Theory: Social, developmental and clinical perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press. (pp. 407-474).

Main, M. & Hesse, E. (1990) Parents’ unresolved traumatic experiences are related to infant disorganized attachment status: Is frightened and/or frightening parental behavior the linking mechanism? In M.T. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti & E.M. Cummings (Eds.), Attachment in the preschool years. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Main, M. & Morgan, H. (1996) Disorganization and disorientation in infant Strange Situation behavior: Phenotypic resemblance to dissociative states? In L. Michelson & W. Ray (Eds.), Handbook of dissociation. New York: Plenum Press.

Main, M. & Solomon, J. (1990) Procedures for identifying infants as disorganized/ disoriented during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. In M.T. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti & E.M. Cummings (Eds.), Attachment in the preschool years (pp. 121-160). Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Meins, E. (1997) Security of attachment and the social development of cognition. Hove: Psychology Press.

Mitchell, S. (2000) Relationality: From attachment theory to intersubjectivity. Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press.

Ogawa, J.R., Sroufe, L.A., Weinfield, N.S., Carlson, E.A. & EGeland, B. (1997) Development and the fragmented self: Longitudinal study of dissociative symptomatology in a nonclinical sample. Development and Psychopathology, 9, pp. 855-879.

Schore, A.N. (2000) Attachment and the regulation of the right brain. Attachment and Human Development, 2, 23-47.

Siegel, D.J. (1999) The developing mind: Toward a neurobiology of interpersonal experience. New York: Guilford.

Slade, A. (1999) Attachment theory and clinical research: Implications for the practice of individual psychotherapy with adults. In Cassidy, J. & Shaver, P.R. (Eds.), Handbook of attachment. New York: Guilford Press.

Solomon, J. & George, C. (Eds.) (1999) Attachment disorganization. New York: Guilford Press.

Weiss, J. (1993) How psychotherapy works. New York: Guilford Press.

Wine, B. & Carter, J. (1999) Parallel individual therapy: A treatment model for the seriously disturbed. Voices, 35, N°1.

Publicado

2001-11-01

Cómo citar

Liotti, G. (2001). De la teoria del apego a la psicoterapia. Revista De Psicoterapia, 12(48), 63–85. https://doi.org/10.33898/rdp.v12i48.552