Emdr y el modelo de procesamiento adaptativo de la información (pai) mecanismos potenciales de cambio


  • Roger M. Solomon Critical Incident Recovery Resources, Williamsville, NY
  • Francine Shapiro Mental Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA



Palabras clave:

modelo de procesamiento adaptativo de la información, mecanismos de cambio, procesamiento de la información, psicoterapia


La desensibilización y reprocesamiento mediante movimientos oculares (EMDR) es un abordaje terapéutico que está guiado por el modelo de procesamiento adaptativo de la información (PAI). Este artículo proporciona una breve visión de conjunto de algunos de los principales preceptos del PAI. Se plantea la hipótesis de que la base de la patología clínica radicaría en los recuerdos almacenados disfuncionalmente, derivándose los resultados terapéuticos obtenidos del procesamiento de tales recuerdos dentro de redes adaptativas mayores. A diferencia de las terapias de exposición basadas en la extinción, se postula que los recuerdos considerados como diana en el EMDR pueden sufrir la transmutación durante el procesamiento para ser luego almacenados nuevamente durante el proceso de reconsolidación. Por ello, se proporciona una comparación y un contraste con los modelos de procesamiento de la información basados en la extinción como así también el tratamiento, que incluye las repercusiones que puede tener para la práctica clínica. A lo largo del artículo se comenta una diversidad de mecanismos de acción, incluidos aquellos que se deducen de los principios del modelo PAI como de los propios procedimientos del EMDR, entre los que figura la estimulación bilateral. A fin de investigar las diversas hipótesis, se ofrecen sugerencias de investigación.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.


Andrade, J., Kavanagh, D., & Baddeley, A. (1997). Eye- movement and visual imagery: A working memoryapproach to the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 209–223.

Aubert-Khalfa, S., Roques, J., & Blin, O. (2008). Evidence of a decrease in heart rate and skin conductance responsein PTSD patients after a single EMDR session. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2, 51–56.

Bandura, A. (2004). Swimming against the mainstream: The early years from chilly tributary to transformativemain- stream. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42, 613–630.

Barrowcliff, A. L., Gray, N. S., Freeman, T. C. A., & MacCulloch, M. J. (2004). Eye-movements reduce thevividness, emotional valence and electrodermal arousal associated with negative autobiographical memories.Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 15, 323–345.

Barrowcliff, A. L., Gray, N. S., MacCulloch,S., Freeman, T.C.A., & MacCulloch, M. J. (2003). Horizontal rhythmical eye movements consistentlydiminish the arousal provoked by auditory stimuli. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 289–302.

Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: GuilfordPress.

Braun, B. G., (1988). The BASK model of dissociation. Dissociation, 1, 4–23.

Brown, K. W., McGoldrick, T., & Buchanan, R. (1997). Body dysmorphic disorder: Seven cases treated with eyemovement desensitization and reprocessing. Behavioural & Cognitive Psychotherapy, 25, 203–207.

Buchanon, T. W. (2007). Retrieval of emotional memories.Psychological Bulletin, 5, 761–779.

Buckner, R. L., & Wheeler, M. E. (2001). The cognitive neuroscience of remembering. Nature ReviewsNeuroscience, 2, 624–634.

Brewin, C. R. (2006). Understanding cognitive-behaviour therapy: A retrieval competition account. BehaviourResearch and Therapy, 44, 765–784.

Cahill, L. & McGaugh, J. L. (1998). Mechanisms of emotional arousal and lasting declarative memory. Trends inNeuroscience, 21, 294–299.

Chemtob, C. M., Tolin, D. F., van der Kolk, B. A., & Pit- man, R. K. (2000). Eye movement desensitization andreprocessing. In E. A. Foa, T. M. Keane, & M. J. Friedman (Eds.), Effective treatments for PTSD: Practiceguidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (pp. 139–155, 333–335). New York:Guilford Press.

Christman, S. D., Garvey, K. J., Propper, R. E., & Phaneuf, K. A. (2003). Bilateral eye movements enhance theretrieval of episodic memories. Neuropsychology, 17, 221–229.

Elofsson, U.O.E., von Scheele, B., Theorell, T., & Sondergaard, H. P. (2008). Physiological correlates of eyemovement desensitization and reprocessing. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 622–624.

Foa, E. B., & Kozak, M. J. (1986). Emotional processing of fear: Exposure to corrective information. PsychologicalBulletin, 99 (1), 20–35.

Foa, E. B., & McNally, R. J. (1996). Mechanisms of change in exposure therapy. In R. M. Rapee (Ed.), Currentcontroversies in the anxiety disorders (pp. 329–343). New York: Guilford Press.

Foa, E. B., Rothbaum, B. O., Riggs, D. S., & Murdock, T. B. (1991). Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorderin rape victims: A comparison between cognitive- behavioral procedures and counseling. Journal ofConsulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 715–723.

Gottfried, J. A., Smith, A. P., Rugg, M. D., & Dolan, R. J. (2004). Remembrance of odors past: Human olfactorycortex in cross-modal recognition memory. Neuron, 42, 687–695.

Gunter, R. W., & Bodner, G. E. (2008). How eye movements affect unpleasant memories: Support for a working-memory account. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 913–931.

Hofmann, S. G., Meuret, A. E., Smits, J. A., Simon, N. M., Pollack, M. H., et al. (2006). Augmentation of exposuretherapy with D-cycloserine for social anxiety disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 298–304.

Kavanagh, D. J., Freese, S., Andrade, J., & May, J. (2001). Effects of visuospatial tasks on desensitization toemotive memories. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 267–280.

Kuiken, D., Bears, M., Miall, D., & Smith, L. (2001–2002).Eye movement desensitization reprocessing facilitatesattentional orienting. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 21, 3–20.

Lee, C., Taylor, G., & Drummond, P. D. (2006). The active ingredient in EMDR: Is it traditional exposure or dualfocus of attention? Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy,13, 97–107.

Lee, J. L., Milton, A. L., & Everitt, B. J. (2006). Reconsolidation and extinction of conditioned fear: Inhibition andpotentiation. Journal of Neuroscience, 26(39), 10051–10056.

Marks, I., Lovell, K., Noshirvani, H., Livanou, M., & Thrasher, S. (1998). Treatment of posttraumatic stressdisorder by exposure and/or cognitive restructuring. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 317–325.

MacCulloch, M. J., & Feldman, P. (1996). Eye movement desensitization treatment utilizes the positive visceralelement of the investigatory reflex to inhibit the memories of post-traumatic stress disorder: A theoreticalanalysis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 571–579.

McCleery, J. M., & Harvey, A. G. (2004). Integration of psychological and biological approaches to traumamemory: Implications for pharmacological prevention of PTSD. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17, 485–496.

McCullough, L. (2002). Exploring change mechanisms in EMDR applied to “small t trauma” in short term dynamicpsychotherapy: Research questions and speculations. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 1465–1487.

McGoldrick, T., Begum, M., & Brown, K. W. (2008). EMDR and olfactory reference syndrome: A case series.Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2, 63–68.

Mol, S.S.L., Arntz, A., Metsemakers, J. F. M., Dinant, G., Vilters-Van Montfort, P. A. P. & Knottnerus, A. (2005).Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder after non-traumatic events: Evidence from an open populationstudy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 186, 494–499.

Propper, R., Pierce, J. P., Geisler, M. W., Christman, S. D., & Bellorado, N. (2007). Effect of bilateral eye move-ments on frontal interhemispheric gamma EEG coherence: Implications for EMDR therapy. Journal ofNervous and Mental Disease, 195, 785–788.

Przybyslawski, J., Roullet, P., & Sara, S. J. (1999). Attenuation of emotional and nonemotional memories after theirreactivation: Role of â adrenergic receptors. Journal of Neuroscience, 19, 6623–6628.

Ressler, K. J., Rothbaum, B. O., Tannenbaum, L., Ander- son, P., Graap, K., et al. (2004). Cognitive enhancers asadjuncts to psychotherapy: Use of D-cycloserine in phobic individuals to facilitate extinction of fear.Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 1136–1144.

Ricci, R. J., & Clayton, C. A. (2008). Trauma resolution treatment as an adjunct to standard treatment for childmolesters: A qualitative study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 1, 41–50.

Rogers, S., & Silver, S. M. (2002). Is EMDR an exposure therapy? A review of trauma protocols. Journal of ClinicalPsychology, 58, 43–59.

Rogers, S., Silver, S., Goss, J., Obenchain, J., Willis, A., & Whitney, R. (1999). A single session, controlled groupstudy of flooding and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in treating posttraumatic stress dis-order among Vietnam war veterans: Preliminary data. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13, 119–130.

Rost, C., Hofmann, A., & Wheeler, K. (in press). EMDR treatment of workplace trauma: A case series. Journal ofEMDR Practice and Research.

Rothbaum, B. O., Astin, M. C., & Marsteller, F. (2005). Pro- longed exposure versus eye movement desensitisation(EMDR) for PTSD rape victims. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18, 607–616.

Rothbaum, B. O., & Foa, E. B. (1996). Cognitivebehavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. In B. A. vander Kolk, A. C. McFarlane, & L. Weisaeth, (Eds.), Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experienceon mind, body and society (pp. 491–509). New York: Guil- ford Press.

Russell, M. (2008). Treating traumatic amputation-related phantom limb pain: A case study utilizing eye move-ment desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) within the armed services. CLINICAL CASE STUDIES, 7, 136–153.

Russell, M. C., Silver, S. M., Rogers, S., & Darnell, J. N. (2007). Responding to an identified need: A jointDepartment of Defense/Department of Veterans Affairs training program in eye movement desensitizationand reprocessing (EMDR) for clinicians providing trauma services. International Journal of StressManagement, 14(1), 61.

Sack, M., Lempa, W., & Lemprecht, W. (2007). Assessment of psychophysiological stress reactions during atraumatic reminder in patients treated with EMDR. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 1, 15–23.

Sack, M., Lempa, W., Steinmetz, A., Lamprecht, F., & Hofmann, A. (2008). Alterations in autonomic tone duringtrauma exposure using eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): Results of a preliminaryinvestigation, 7), 1264–1271.

Schneider, J., Hofmann, A., Rost, C., & Shapiro, F. (2007).EMDR and phantom limb pain: Case study, theoretical implications, and treatment guidelines. Journal of EMDRPractice and Research, 1, 31–45.

Schneider, J., Hofmann, A., Rost, C., & Shapiro, F. (2008). EMDR in the treatment of chronic phantom limb pain.Pain Medicine, 9, 76–82.

Shapiro, F. (1989). Efficacy of the eye movement desensitization procedure in the treatment of traumatic memories.Journal of Traumatic Stress Studies, 2, 199–223.

Shapiro, F. (1995). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Basic principles, protocols, and procedures.New York: Guilford Press.

Shapiro, F. (2001). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Basic principles, protocols, and procedures(2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Shapiro, F. (2002) Paradigms, processing, and personality development. In F. Shapiro (Ed.), EMDR as anintegrative psychotherapy approach: Experts of diverse orientations explore the paradigm prism (pp. 3–26).American Psychological Association Press. Washington, DC.

Shapiro, F. (2006). New notes on adaptive information processing. Hamden, CT: EMDR Humanitarian AssistancePrograms.

Shapiro, F. (2007a). EMDR and case conceptualization from an adaptive information processing perspective. In F. Shapiro, F. Kaslow & L. Maxfield (Eds.), Handbook of EMDR and family therapy processes (pp. 3–36). New York: Wiley.

Shapiro, F. (2007b, September). EMDR update: Theory, research, and practice. Keynote presentation at theEMDR International Association annual conference, Dallas, TX.

Shapiro, F., & Forrest, M. S. (1997).EMDR: The breakthrough therapy for overcoming anxiety, stress, and trauma. New York: Basic Books.

Shapiro, F., Kaslow, F., & Maxfield, L. (Eds.). (2007). Handbook of EMDR and family therapy processes. NewYork: Wiley.

Sharpley, C. F., Montgomery, I. M., & Scalzo, L. A. (1996). Comparative efficacy of EMDR and alternativeprocedures in reducing the vividness of mental images. Scandinavian Journal of Behaviour Therapy, 25,37–42.

Siegel, D. J. (2002). The developing mind and the resolution of trauma: Some ideas about information processingand an interpersonal neurobiology of psychotherapy. In F. Shapiro (Ed.), EMDR as an integrativepsychotherapy approach: Experts of diverse orientations explore the paradigm prism (pp. 85–122).Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.

Siegel, D. J. (2007). The mindful brain. New York: Norton.Smyth, N. J., Rogers, S., & Maxfield, L. (2004, September). What about eye movements? Plenary at the annualconference of the EMDR International Association, Montreal, Canada.

Stickgold, R. (2002). EMDR: A putative neurobiological mechanism of action. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58,61–75.

Suzuki, A., Josselyn, S. A., Frankland, P. W., Masushige, S., Silva, A. J., & Kida, S. (2004). Memoryreconsolidation and extinction have distinct temporal and biochemical signatures. Journal of Neuroscience,24, 4787– 4795.

Teasdale, J. D. (1997). The relationship between cognition and emotion: The mind-in-place in mood disorders. InD. M. Clark & C. G. Fairburn (Eds.), Science and practice of cognitive behaviour therapy (pp. 67–93).Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Teasdale, J. D., Moore, R. G., Hayhurst, H., Pope, M., Williams, S., & Segal, Z. (2002). Metacognitive awarenessand prevention of relapse in depression: Empirical evidence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,70, 275–287.

van den Hout, M., Muris, P., Salemink, E., & Kindt, M. (2001). Autobiographical memories become less vivid andemotional after eye movements. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 121–130.

van der Kolk, B. A., and Fisler, R. (1995). Dissociation and the fragmentary nature of traumatic memories:Overview and exploratory study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8, 505–525.

Wilensky, M. (2006). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) as a treatment for phantom limbpain. Journal of Brief Therapy, 5, 31–44

.Wilson, D., Silver, S. M., Covi, W., & Foster, S. (1996). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Effective-ness and autonomic correlates. Journal of Behaviour Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 27, 219–229.

Zaghout-Hodali, M., Alissa, F., & Dodgson, P. (2008).EMDR and resilience in children in ongoing trauma. Journalof EMDR Practice and Research, 1, 106–113.



Cómo citar

Solomon, R. M., & Shapiro, F. (2009). Emdr y el modelo de procesamiento adaptativo de la información (pai) mecanismos potenciales de cambio. Revista De Psicoterapia, 20(80), 17–37. https://doi.org/10.33898/rdp.v20i80.836