Validation of the Morale Questionnaire for Military Operational Theaters [Validación del cuestionario de moral para zonas de Operaciones Militares]


  • Alberto Pastor Álvarez Ministerio de Defensa
  • Fernando Molero Alonso Universidad Nacional de Educación de Distancia UNED
  • Juan Antonio Moriano León Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia



morale, cohesion, motivation, espirit de corps, combat exhaustion [Moral, Cohesión, Motivación, Espíriitu de unidad, Estrés de combate]



To assess the morale of the troops has been a concern of military leaders throughout history, mainly because of the level of involvement that this factor could have in the resolution of conflicts on the battlefield. The purpose of this research was to obtain evidence of the validity of the internal structure of the Morale Questionnaire used by the Spanish Armed Forces in military operations overseas.  Two subsamples of 250 Spanish soldiers deployed on an international mission in Lebanon participated in the study.  The questionnaire was applied at the beginning and at the end of the mission, respectly. The results obtained through

Exploratory and Confirmatory Factorial Analysis and Structural Equation Modelling, allowed to assess the questionnaire statistically obtaining a tool that consists of 26 items, agglutinated in six factors. The theoretical dimensions of the original tool were mostly maintained. This will permit Spanish Armed Forces to have a reliable measuring instrument that will facilitate specific predictions about morale and its consecuences on the battlefield.


Evaluar la moral de las tropas ha sido una preocupación de los líderes militares a lo largo de la historia, principalmente por el nivel de participación que este factor podría tener en la resolución de conflictos en el campo de batalla. El objetivo de esta investigación fue obtener evidencias sobre la validez de la estructura interna del cuestionario de moral utilizado por las Fuerzas Armadas Españolas en operaciones militares en el exterior. Dos submuestras de 250 soldados españoles desplegados en una misión internacional en Líbano participaron en el estudio. El cuestionario se aplicó al principio y al final de la misión. Los resultados obtenidos a través del Análisis factorial exploratorio y confirmatorio, así como el Modelo de ecuaciones estructurales, permitieron validar el cuestionario obteniendo estadísticamente una herramienta que consta de 26 ítems, aglutinados en seis factores. Las dimensiones teóricas de la herramienta original se mantuvieron en su mayoría. Esto permitirá a las Fuerzas Armadas españolas tener un instrumento de medición confiable que facilitará predicciones específicas sobre la moral y sus consecuencias en el campo de batalla.


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Author Biographies

Alberto Pastor Álvarez, Ministerio de Defensa

Jefe Interino de la Sección de Psicología de la Unidad Militar de Emergencias. Ministerio de Defensa.

Fernando Molero Alonso, Universidad Nacional de Educación de Distancia UNED

Catedrático Departamento de Psicología Social y de las Organizaciones

Juan Antonio Moriano León, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia

Profesor Contratado Doctor, Departamento de Psicología Social y de las Organizaciones


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How to Cite

Pastor Álvarez, A., Molero Alonso, F., & Moriano León, J. A. (2020). Validation of the Morale Questionnaire for Military Operational Theaters [Validación del cuestionario de moral para zonas de Operaciones Militares]. Acción Psicológica, 16(2), 31–42.



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