El apego y la depresión adolescente: el impacto de las primeras experiencias de apego

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33898/rdp.v18i72.714

Palabras clave:

adolescentes, depresión, apego, cultura, género

Resumen

Las ideas de Bowlby (1969/1982) sobre el apego como un sistema interactivo nos proporcionan la base para entender el desarrollo de los modelos de funcionamiento adaptativos y desadaptativos del yo y el otro. Más concretamente, la teoría del apego puede ofrecernos una comprensión detallada del desarrollo de un autoesquema depresógeno. La teoría del apego se sitúa junto a la investigación sobre la depresión adolescente, para ilustrar la importancia de la relación de apego primaria a la hora de proteger a los adolescentes en nuestra sociedad contra el desarrollo de sintomatología depresiva. Así, se considera la investigación actual sobre la depresión adolescente a través de la lente de la teoría del apego. Dicha visión se complementa con una exploración sobre el papel de la cultura en la producción de las diferencias de género en la depresión. Así, se ofrece un modelo tripartito de la depresión adolescente, que incluye el individuo, las relaciones familiares y los factores socioculturales, y que puede presentar un valor potencial para los profesionales de la salud e investigadores en esta área.

 

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Citas

AINSWORTH, M. D. S., BLEHAR, M., WATERS, E., & WALL, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: Apsychological study of thestrange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

ALLEN, J. P., & LAND, D. (1999). Attachment in adolescence. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbookof attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 319 – 335). New York: Guilford.

ALLEN, J. P., MCELHANEY, K. B., LAND, D. J., KUPERMINC, G. P., MOORE, C. W., O’ BEIME-KELLY,H., et al. (2003). A secure base in adolescence: Markers of attachment security in mother–adolescentrelationship, Child Development, 74, 292-307.

ANGOLD, A. (1988). Childhood and adolescent depression. I: Epidemiological and aetiological aspects. BritishJournal of Psychiatry, 152, 601-617.

ANGOLD, A., COSTELLO, E. J., ERKANLI, A., & WORTHMAN, C. M. (1999). Pubertal changes in hormonelevels and depression in girls. Psychological Medicine, 29, 1043-1053.

AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION. (2000). Diagnostic and statistics manual of mental disorders (textrevision). Washington, DC: Author.

BALDWIN, M. W., FEHR, B., KEEDIAN, E., SEIDEL, M., & THOMSON, D. W. (1993). An exploration of therelational schemata underlying attachment styles: Self-report and lexical decision approaches. Journal ofPersonality and Social Psychology, 19, 746-754.

BARLOW, D. H., DINARDO, P. A., VERMILYEA, J., & BLANCHARD, E. B. (1986). Comorbidity anddepression among the anxiety disorders: Issues in diagnosis and classification. The Journal of Nervous andMental Diseases, 174, 63-72.

BARTHOLOMEW, K., & HOROWITZ, L. M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 226-244.

BEBBINGTON, P. E. (1998). Sex and depression. Psychological Medicine, 28, 1-8.

BEBBINGTON, P. E., BRUGHA, T., MACCARTHY, B., et al. (1988). The Camberwell Collaborative DepressionStudy. I: Depressed probands: Adversity and the form of depression. British Journal of Psychiatry, 152,754-765.

BECK, A. T. (1976). Cognitive therapy and emotional disorders. New York: International University Press.

BIRMAHER, B., RYAN, N. D., WILLIAMSON, D. E., & BRENT, D. A. (1996). Childhood and adolescentdepression: A review of the past 10 years, Part II. Journal of the American Academy of Child and AdolescentPsychiatry, 35, 1575-1583.

BLATT, S. J. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclitic and introjective depression. Psychoanalytic Studyof the Child, 29, 107-157.

BLOCK, J., GJERDE, P. F., & BLOCK, J. H. (1991). Personality antecedents of depressive tendencies in 18-year-olds: A prospective study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 726-738.

BOWLBY, J. (1969/1982). Attachment and loss. Vol. 1: Attachment (2nd ed.). New York: Basic Books.

BOWLBY, J. (1973). Attachment and loss. Vol. 2: Separation: Anxiety and anger. New York: Basic Books.

BROWN, G. W., & HARRIS, T. (1978). Social origins of depression. London: Tavistock.

CAMELLEY, K. B., PIETROMONOCO, P. R., & JAFFE, K. J. (1994). Depression, working models of others,and relationship functioning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 127-140.

CHODOROW, N. (1978). The reproduction of mothering: Psychoanalysis and the sociology of gender. Berkeley:University of California Press.

CICCHETTI, D., & TOTH, S. L. (1988). The development of depression in children and adolescents. AmericanPsychologist, 53, 221-241.

COLE-DETKE, H., & KOBAK, R. R. (1996). Attachment processes in eating disorder and depression. Journalof Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 282-290.

COOPER, M. L., SHAVER, P. R., & COLLINS, N. L. (1998). Attachment styles, emotion regulation, andadjustment in adolescence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1380-1397.

CRITTENDEN, P. M. (1995). Attachment and psychopathology. In S. Goldberg, R. Muir, & J. Kerr (Eds.),Attachment theory: Social, developmental, and clinical perspectives (pp. 367 – 406). Hillsdale, NJ: TheAnalytic Press.

ERIKSON, E. (1950). Childhood and society. New York: Norton.

FAIRBURN, C. G., & BROWNELL, K. D. (2002) Eating disorders and obesity. New York: Guilford.

FLEMMING, J. E., OFFORD, D. R., & BOYLE, M. H. (1989). Prevalence of childhood and adolescent depressionin the community: Ontario child health study. British J. Psychiatry, 155, 647-654.

FROMMER, E. A. (1968). Depressive illness in childhood. In A. Coppen & A. Walk (Eds.), Recent developmentsin affective disorders. Ashford: Headley Brothers.

FREUD, S. (1945). An outline of psychoanalysis. New York: Norton.

FULLER, T. L., & FINCHAM, F. D. (1995). Attachment style in married couples: Relation to current maritalfunctioning, stability over time, and method of assessment. Personal Relationships, 2, 17-34.

GERGEN, K. J. (1971). The concept of self. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

GILLIGAN, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women’s development. Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press.

GLASER, K. (1967). Masked depression in children and adolescents. American Journal of Psychotherapy,21, 565-574.

GOODYER, I. M., HERBERT, J., TAMPLIN, A., & ALTHAM, P. M. E. (2000). Recent life events, cortisol,dihydroepisandrosterone and the onset of major depression in high-risk adolescents. British Journal ofPsychiatry, 177, 499-504.

HARRINGTON, R. C. (1990). Depressive disorder in children and adolescents. British Journal of HospitalMedicine, 43, 108-112.

HAZAN, C., & SHAVER, P. (1987). Romantic love conceptualised as an attachment process. Journal ofPersonality and Social Psychology, 52, 511-524.

HERRING, M., & KASLOW, N. J. (2002) Depression and attachment in families: A child-focused perspective.Family Process, 41, 494-518.

HOUSTON, J. (1998). Making sense with offenders. Wiley: Chichester.

KESSLER, R., & MCLEOD, J. D. (1984). Sex differences in vulnerability to undesirable life events. AmericanSociological Review, 49, 620-631.

KLERMAN, G. K., & WEISSMAN, M. M. (1989). Increasing rates of depression. Journal of the AmericanMedical Association, 261, 2229-2235.

KOBAK, R., & COLE, H. (1994). Attachment and meta-monitoring: Implications for adolescent autonomy andpsychopathology. In D. Cichettit & S. C. Toth (Eds.), Rochester Symposium on DevelopmentalPsychopathology: Vol. 5. Disorders and dysfunctions of the self. Rochester, NY: University of RochesterPress.

KOBAK, R. R., & SCEERY, A. (1988). Attachment in late adolescence: Working models, affect regulation, andrepresentation of self and others. Child Development, 59, 135-146.

KOVACS, M. (1996). Depression in children and adolescents. American Psychologist, 44, 209-215.

LEWINSOHN, P.M., HOPS, H., ROBERTS, R. E., SEELEY, J. R., & ANDREWS, J. A. (1993). Adolescentpsychopathology: I. Prevalence and incidence of depression and other DSM-III-R disorders in high schoolstudents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 133-144.

MAIN, M., KAPLAN, N., & CASSIDY, J. (1985). Security in infancy, childhood and adulthood: A move to thelevel of representation. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50 (1-2, Serial No. 209).

MIKULINCER, M. (1995). Attachment style and the mental representation of the self. Journal of Personality andSocial Psychology, 69, 1203-1215.

MIKULINCER, M., SHAVER, P., & PEREG, D. (2003). Attachment theory and affect regulation: The dynamics,development, and cognitive consequences of attachment-related strategies. Motivation and Emotion, 27,77-102.

NAZROO, J. Y., EDWARDS, A. C., & BROWN, G. W. (1997). Gender differences in the onset of depressionfollowing a shared life event: A study of couples. Psychological Medicine, 27, 9-19.

PAYKEL, E. S., MYERS, J. K., DIENELT, M. N., KLERMAN, G. L., LINDENTHAL, J. J., & PEPPER, M. P.(1969). Life events and depression: A controlled study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 21, 753-760.

PIERCE, G. R., & SARASON, B. R. (1990). Social support and interactional processes: A triadic hypothesis.Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 7, 495-506.

ROCHLIN, G. (1959). The loss complex. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 7, 299-316.

ROHDE, P., LEWINSOHN, P. M., & SEELEY, J. R. (1991). Comorbidity of unipolar depression. II: Comorbiditywith other mental disorders in adolescents and adults. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 214-222.

ROTHENBERG, A. (1988). Differential diagnosis of anorexia nervosa and depressive illness: A review of 11studies. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 29, 427-432.

RUTTER, M. (1988). Depressive disorders. In M. Rutter, A. H. Tuma, & I. S. Lann (Eds.), Assessment anddiagnosis in child psychopathology. New York: Guilford.

RUTTER, M., TIZARD, J., & WHITMORE, K. (1970). Education, health and behaviour. London: Longman.

SPITZ, R. (1946). Anaclitic depression. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 2, 313-342.

THOMAS, A. M., & FOREHAND, R. (1991). The relationship between paternal depressive mood and earlyadolescent functioning. Journal of Family Psychology, 4, 260-271.

TORQUATI, J. C., & VAZSONY, A. T. (1999). Attachment as an organisational construct for affect, appraisals,and coping of late adolescent females. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 28, 545-562.

TRAD, P. V. (1986). Infant depression. New York: Springer-Verlag.

WALLIS, P., & STEELE, H. (2001). Attachment representations in adolescence: Further evidence frompsychiatric settings. Attachment and Human Development, 3, 259-268.

WEISSMAN, M. M., & KLERMAN, G. L. (1977). Sex differences and the epidemiology of depression. Journalof Health and Social Behaviour, 26, 156-182.

WETZEL, J. W. (1994). Depression: Women at risk. Social Work Health Care, 19, 85-108.

WILKINSON, R. B., & WALFORD, W. A. (2001). Attachment and personality in the psychological health ofadolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 31, 473-484.

Publicado

2007-11-01

Cómo citar

Shaw, S. K. ., & Dallos, R. . (2007). El apego y la depresión adolescente: el impacto de las primeras experiencias de apego. Revista De Psicoterapia, 18(72), 5–26. https://doi.org/10.33898/rdp.v18i72.714