Retención docente a través de la teoría de demandas y recursos laborales

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5944/educxx1.31901

Palabras clave:

inteligencia emocional, engagement, actitudes laborales, profesorado, modelo de ecuaciones estructurales

Resumen

De acuerdo con la teoría de Demandas y Recursos Laborales, existen diversos factores psicosociales en el trabajo (demandas y recursos laborales) que afectan a los niveles de engagement y a las actitudes laborales del profesorado. Asimismo, la inteligencia emocional se considera un recurso personal clave con efectos positivos sobre la salud ocupacional del profesorado. No obstante, hasta la fecha no se han llevado a cabo estudios integradores que examinen simultáneamente las relaciones de estos factores contextuales y personales y sus relaciones con el engagement y con las actitudes laborales docentes. Así, el objetivo principal de este trabajo ha sido examinar las relaciones entre antecedentes (demandas y recursos laborales) y consecuentes del engagement (actitudes laborales) docente, así como analizar el potencial efecto moderador de la inteligencia emocional. El diseño de la investigación es transversal y se ha llevado a cabo un análisis de modelado de ecuaciones estructurales, contando con una muestra de 734 profesionales docentes (63.8% mujeres; Medad = 44.38; DT = 9.11) de diferentes niveles de especialidad. Se han empleado escalas ampliamente validadas para medir las variables objeto de estudio: agresiones hacia el profesorado, apoyo social organizacional, inteligencia emocional, engagement, satisfacción laboral e intención de abandono. Los resultados han mostrado asociaciones directas e interactivas entre la inteligencia emocional y antecedentes y consecuentes del engagement. Estos hallazgos apuntan al desarrollo de modelos teóricos integradores que consideren el papel de los recursos emocionales del profesorado junto con otros factores personales y contextuales. Finalmente, esta investigación puede contribuir al diseño de programas de desarrollo de las competencias emocionales orientados a la mejora del bienestar y el desempeño docente.

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Publicado

2022-06-29

Número

Sección

Estudios