¿Inestabilidad en el lado oscuro? estructura factorial, invarianza de medición y fiabilidad de la Dirty Dozen Dark Triad en población general de Lima




Palabras clave:

Dirty Dozen Dark Triad, validación, invarianza de medición, personalidad


AbstractInstability on the dark side? Factorial structure, measurement invariance and reliability of the Dirty Dozen Dark Triad in the general population of Lima. The dark triad of the personality is a complex measure composed of three traits such as Machiavellianism, psychopathy and narcissism that are associated with destructive behaviors to the interests of others. The Dirty Dozen Dark Triad (DDDT) scale was used to evaluate the dark triad. The present study seeks to analyze the internal structure, measurement invariance and reliability of DDDT scores. 320 people were recruited (64.1% women), the average age was 24.4 and 89.7% were single. Four measurement models were identified by means of confirmatory factor analysis; the measurement invariance was also evaluated, which did not show a significant deterioration for the group according to gender. In addition, congeneric and tau-equivalent models were implemented and the accuracy of the scores for all the factors was > .70. This DDDT version provides useful evidence at the psychometric level to be implemented with a screening instrument in the psychological evaluation.

Keywords: Dirty Dozen Dark Triad; validation; measurement invariance; personality.

Resumen: Las triada oscura de la personalidad es una medida compleja compuesta de tres rasgos como maquiavelismo, psicopatía y narcisismo que están asociados a comportamientos destructivos a los intereses de los demás. Para evaluar la tríada oscura fue utilizada la escala Dirty Dozen Dark Triad (DDDT). El presente estudio busco analizar la estructura interna, invarianza de medida y la fiabilidad de las puntuaciones de la DDDT. Fueron reclutados 320 personas (64.1% mujeres), el promedio de edad fue 24.4 y el 89.7% fueron solteros. Se identificados cuatro modelos de medida mediante análisis factorial confirmatorio, también fue evaluada la invariancia de medida que no evidencio un deterioro significativo para el grupo según género. Además, fueron implementados modelos congenéricos y tau-equivalentes y la precisión de las puntuaciones para todos los factores fue >.70. Esta versión DDDT reporta evidencias útiles a nivel psicométrico para ser implementadas como instrumento de despistaje en la evaluación psicológica. 

Palabras clave: Dirty Dozen Dark Triad; validación; invarianza de medición; personalidad.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.


Aghababaei, N., Mohammadtabar, S., & Saffarinia, M. (2014). Dirty Dozen vs. the H factor: Comparison of the Dark Triad and Honesty–Humility in prosociality, religiosity, and happiness. Personality and Individual Differences, 67, 6-10. Doi: 0.1016/j.paid.2014.03.026

Amernic, J. H., & Craig, R. J. (2010). Accounting as a facilitator of extreme narcissism. Journal of Business Ethics, 96, 79–93. doi: 10.1007%2Fs10551-010-0450-0

Asendorpf, J. B., Conner, M., De Fruyt, F., De Houwer, J., Denissen, J. J., Fiedler, K., & Perugini, M. (2013). Recommendations for increasing replicability in psychology. European Journal of Personality, 27(2), 108-119. doi: 10.1002/per.1919

Atari, M., & Chegeni, R. (2016). Assessment of dark personalities in Iran: Psychometricevaluation of the Farsi translation of the Short Dark Triad (SD3-F). Personality and Individual Differences, 102, 111–117. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.06.070

Beaducel, A., & Herzberg, P. Y. (2006). On the performance of maximum likelihood versus means and variance adjusted weighted least squares estimation in CFA. Structural Equation Modeling, 13, 186–203. doi: 10.1207/s15328007sem1302_2

Benet-Martinez, V., & John, O. P. (1998). Los Cinco Grandes across cultures and ethnic groups: Multitrait-multimethod analyses of the Big Five in Spanish and English. Journal of personality and social psychology, 75(3), 729 – 750. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.75.3.729

Bentler, P. M. & Wu, E. J. C. (2012). EQS 6.2 for windows [Statistical Program]. Encino, CA: Multivariate Software, Inc.

Brenner, N., Eaton, D., Kann, L., Grunbaum, J., Gross, L., Kyle, T., & Rodd, J. (2006). The association of survey setting and mode with self-reported health risk behavior among high school students. Public Opinion Quarterly, 70, 354-374. doi: 10.1093/poq /nfl003

Brunell, A. B., Gentry, W. A., Campbell, W. K., Hoffman, B. J., Kuhnert, K. W., & DeMarree, K. G. (2008). Leader emergence. The case of the narcissistic leader. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1663–1676. doi: 10.1177/0146167208324101

Chen, F.F. (2007). Sensitivity of goodness of fit indexes to lack of measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 14, 464 – 504. doi: 10.1080/10705510701301834

Cheung, G.W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9(2), 233 – 255.

Clancy, E. M., Klettke, B., & Hallford, D. J. (2019). The dark side of sexting–Factors predicting the dissemination of sexts. Computers in Human Behavior, 92, 266-272. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2018.11.023

Clark, L.A., & Watson, D. (1995). Constructing validity: basic issues in objective scale development. Psychological Assessment, 7(3), 309 – 319.

Costa Jr, P. T., McCrae, R. R., & Löckenhoff, C. E. (2019). Personality across the life span. Annual review of psychology, 70, 423-448. doi: 10.1146/annurev-psych-010418-103244

Cronbach L.J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16(3), 297-334. doi: 10.1007/BF02310555

Dimitrov, D. M. (2010). Testing for factorial invariance in the context of construct validation. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 43(2), 121–149

Dinić, B. M., & Wertag, A. (2018). Effects of Dark Triad and HEXACO traits on reactive/proactive aggression: Exploring the gender differences. Personality and Individual Differences, 123, 44-49.

Dinić, B. M., Petrović, B., & Jonason, P. K. (2018). Serbian adaptations of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen (DTDD) and Short Dark Triad (SD3). Personality and Individual Differences, 134, 321-328. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2018.06.018

Diógenes de Medeiros, E., Pereira Monteiro, R., Silva Veloso Gouveia, R., da Silva Nascimento, B., & Veloso Gouveia, V. (2017). Dark Triad Dirty Dozen: Avaliando seus Parâmetros Via TRI. Psico-USF, 22(2). doi: 10.1590/1413-82712017220209

Dominguez, S., & Merino, C. (2015a). Una versión breve del Cognitive Emotional Regulation Questionnarie: Análisis estructural del CERQ-18 en estudiantes universitarios limeños. Revista Peruana de Psicología y Trabajo Social, 4(1), 25-36.

Dominguez, S. & Merino C. (2015b) ¿Por qué es importante reportar los intervalos de confianza del coeficiente alfa de Cronbach? Revista Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, Niñez y Juventud, 13(2), 1326-1328.

Dunn, T. J., Baguley, T., & Brunsden, V. (2014). From alpha to omega: A practical solution to the pervasive problema of internal consistency estimation. British Journal of Psychology, 105(3), 399 – 412. doi: 10.1111/bjop.12046

Egan, V., Chan, S., & Shorter, G. W. (2014). The Dark Triad, happiness and subjective wellbeing. Personality and Individual Differences, 67, 17–22. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.01.004

Elosua, P., Mujika, J., Almeida, L.S., & Hermosilla, D. (2014). Procedimientos analítico-racionales en la adaptación de tests. Adaptación al español de la batería de pruebas de razonamiento. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, 46,117-126.

Fornell, C. & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 39- 50. doi: 10.2307/3151312

Furnham, A., & Trickey, G. (2011). Sex differences in the dark side traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(4), 517–522. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.11.021

Furnham, A., Richard, S.C., & Paulhus, D.L. (2013). The Dark Triad of personality: A 10 years review. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7(3), 199 – 216. doi: 10.1111/spc3.12018

Furnham, A., Richards, S., Rangel, L., & Jones, D.N. (2014). Measuring malevolence: quantitative issues surrounding the Dark Triad of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 67, 114 – 121. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.02.001

Gadermann, A. M., Guhn, M., & Zumbo, B.D. (2012). Estimating ordinal reliability for Likert-type and ordinal item response data: A conceptual, empirical, and practical guide. Practical Assessment, Research, & Evaluation, 17(3). Recuperado de: http://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?v=17&n=3.

Gamache, D., Savard, C., & Maheux-Caron, V. (2018). French adaptation of the Short Dark Triad: Psychometric properties and a head-to-head comparison with the Dirty Dozen. Personality and Individual Differences, 122, 164-170. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2017.10.027

Garcia, D., Persson, B. N., Al Nima, A., Brulin, J. G., Rapp-Ricciardi, M., & Kajonius, P. J. (2018). IRT analyses of the Swedish Dark Triad Dirty Dozen. Heliyon, 4(3), e00569. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e00569

Gosling, S.D., Rentfrow, P.J., & Swann, W.B. (2003). A very brief measure of the Big Five personality domains. Journal of Research in Personality, 37, 504 – 528. doi: 10.1016/S0092-6566(03)00046-1

Hain, S., Schermelleh-Engel, K., Freitag, C., Louwen, F., & Oddo, S (2015). Development of a short form of the Personality Styles and Disorder Inventory (PSDI-6). European Journal of Psychological Assessment. Recuperado de: http://econtent.hogrefe.com/doi/full/10.1027/1015-5759/a000260

Hancock, G. R., & Mueller, R. O. (2001). Rethinking construct reliability within latent variable systems. En R. Cudeck, S. H. C. du Toit & D. Sörbom (Eds.), Structural equation modeling: Past and present. A Festschrift in honor of Karl G. Jöreskog (pp. 195–261). Chicago: Scientific Software International.

Holgado–Tello, F. P., Chacón–Moscoso, S., Barbero–García, I., y Vila–Abad, E. (2010). Polychoric versus Pearson correlaons in exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of ordinal variables. Quality & Quanty, 44(1), 153-166. doi: 10.1007/s11135-008-9190-y

Hoerger, M. (2010). Participant dropout as a function of survey length in internet mediated university studies: Implications for study design and voluntary participation in psychological research. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 13(6), 697-700. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2009.0445

Hoerger, M., & Currell, C. (2011). Ethical issues in internet research. In S. Knapp, M. Gottlieb, M. Handelsman, & L. VandCreek (Eds.), APA Handbook of ethics in psychology. Washington, D.C.: American Psychologist Association.

Hu, L. T., y Bentler, P. M. (1998). Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: Sensitivity to underparameterized model misspecification. Psychological Methods, 3(4), 424. doi: 10.1037/1082-989x.3.4.424

Jakobwitz, S., & Egan, V. (2006). The dark triad and normality personality traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 331 – 339. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2005.07.006

Jonason, P.K., & Luévano, V.X. (2013). Walking the thin line between efficiency and accuracy: Validity and structure of the Dirty Dozen. Personality and Individual Differences, 55, 76-81. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2013.02.010

Jonason, P.K., & McCain, J. (2012). Using the HEXACO model to test the validity of the Dirty Dozen measure of the Dark Triad. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 935 – 938. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2012.07.010

Jonason, P.K., & Middleton, J.P. (2015). The Dark Triad: Welcome to the “dark side” of personality. In J.D. Wright (Ed.). International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences (2nd ed., pp. 671-675). Oxford: Elsevier.

Jonason, P.K., & Webster, G.D. (2010). The Dirty Dozen: A concise measure of the Dark Triad. Psychological Assessment, 22, 420-432. doi: 10.1037/a0019265

Jonason, P.K., Icho, A., & Ireland, K. (en prensa). Resources, harshness, and unpredictability: The socioeconomic conditions associated with the Dark Triad traits. Evolutionary Psychology.

Jonason, P.K., Kaufman, S.B., Webster, G.D., & Geher, G. (2013). What lies beneath the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen: Varied relations with the Big Five. Individual Differences Research, 11, 81-90.

Jonason, P. K., Li, N. P., Webster, G. D., & Schmitt, D. P. (2009). The dark triad: Facilitating a short‐term mating strategy in men. European Journal of Personality, 23(1), 5-18. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2011.06.025

Jonason, P. K., & Tost, J. (2010). I just cannot control myself: The Dark Triad and self-control. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(6), 611-615. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2010.05.031

Jones, D.N., & Figueredo, A.J. (2013). The core of darkness: uncovering the heart of the Dark Triad. European Journal of Personality, 27, 521 – 531. doi: 10.1002%2Fper.1893

Jones, D.N., & Paulhus, D.L. (2014). Introducing the Short Dark Triad (SD3): A brief measure of dark personality traits. Assessment, 21(1), 28 – 41. doi: 10.1177/1073191113514105

Kajonius, P. J., Persson, B. N., Rosenberg, P., & Garcia, D. (2016). The (mis) measurement of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen: exploitation at the core of the scale. PeerJ, 4, e1748.

Kayiş, A. R., Yılmaz, M. F., Satıcı, S. A., & Çapan, B. E. (2018). Dirty Dozen Scale: a study of adaptation to Turkish university students. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 19, 34-40. doi: 10.5455/apd.288773

Kircaburun, K., Jonason, P. K., & Griffiths, M. D. (2018). The Dark Tetrad traits and problematic social media use: The mediating role of cyberbullying and cyberstalking. Personality and Individual Differences, 135, 264-269. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2018.07.034

Kowalski, C.M., Vernon, P.A., & Schermer, J.A. (2016). The General Factor of Personality: The relationship between the Big One and the Dark Triad. Personality and Individual Differences, 88, 256 – 260. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.09.028

LeBreton, J. M., Shiverdecker, L. K., & Grimaldi, E. M. (2018). The dark triad and workplace behavior. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 5, 387-414. doi: 10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-032117-104451

Lee, K., & Ashton, M.C. (2005). Psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and narcissism in the Five-Factor Model and the HEXACO model of personality structure. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 1571 – 1582. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2004.09.016

Lee, S.-Y., Poon, W.-Y. & Bentler, P. M. (1995). A two-stage estimation of structural equation models with continuous and polytomous variables. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 48(2), 339–358. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8317.1995.tb01067.x

Łowicki, P., & Zajenkowski, M. (2017). No empathy for people nor for God: The relationship between the Dark Triad, religiosity and empathy. Personality and Individual Differences, 115, 169-173. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.02.012

Lyons, M., & Jonason, P.K. (2015). Dark Triad, tramps, and thieves: Psychopathy predicts a diverse range of theft-related attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Individual Differences, 36, 215-220. doi: 10.1027/1614-0001/a000177

Lyons, M., Evans, K., & Helle, S. (2019). Do “Dark” Personality Features Buffer Against Adversity? The Associations Between Cumulative Life Stress, the Dark Triad, and Mental Distress. SAGE Open. doi:10.1177/2158244018822383

Malgady, R. (2007). How skew are psychological data? A standardized index of effect size. The Journal of General Psychology, 134(3), 355-359.

Maples, J.L., Lamkin, J., & Miller, J.D. (2014). A test of two brief measures of the Dark Triad: The Dirty Dozen and Short Dark Triad. Psychological Assessment, 26(1), 326 – 331. doi: 10.1037/a0035084

McCrae, R. R. (2002). Cross-cultural research on the Five-Factor Model of Personality. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 4(4). Recuperado de: http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1038&context=orpc

Meyer, J.P. (2010). Reliability. New York: Oxford University Press.

Muñiz, J., Elosua, P., y Hambleton, R. K. (2013). International Test Commission Guidelines for test translation and adaptation. Psicothema, 25(2), 151-157. doi: 10.7334/psicothema2013.24

Onyedire, N. G., Chukwuorji, J. C., Orjiakor, T. C., Onu, D. U., Aneke, C. I., & Ifeagwazi, C. M. (2019). Associations of Dark Triad traits and problem gambling: Moderating role of age among university students. Current Psychology, 1-12. doi: 10.1007/s12144-018-0093-3

Özsoy, E., Rauthmann, J. F., Jonason, P. K., & Ardıç, K. (2017). Reliability and validity of the Turkish versions of dark triad dirty dozen (DTDD-T), short dark triad (SD3-T), and single item narcissism scale (SINS-T). Personality and Individual Differences, 117, 11-14. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2017.05.019 0191-8869

Pailing, A., Boon, J., & Egan, V. (2014). Personality, the Dark Triad and violence. Personality and Individual Differences, 67, 81 – 86. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2013.11.018

Paulhus, D.L. (2014). Toward a taxonomy of dark personalities. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23(6), 421 – 426. doi: 10.1177/0963721414547737

Paulhus, D.L., & Williams, K.M. (2002). The dark triad of personality: narcissism, machiavellianism, and psychopathy. Journal of Research in Personality, 36, 556 – 563. doi: 10.1016/S0092-6566(02)00505-6

Pina, A., Holland, J., & James, M. (2017). The malevolent side of revenge porn proclivity: dark personality traits and sexist ideology. International Journal of Technoethics (IJT), 8(1), 30-43. doi: 10.4018/IJT.2017010103

Pineda, D., Sandín, B., & Muris, P. (2018). Psychometrics properties of the Spanish version of two Dark Triad scales: The Dirty Dozen and the Short Dark Triad. Current Psychology, 1-9. doi: 10.1007/s12144-018-9888-5

Putnick, D. L., y Bornstein, M. H. (2016). Measurement invariance conventions and reporting: the state of the art and future directions for psychological research. Developmental Review, 41, 71-90.

Rauthmann, J.F. (2012). The Dark Triad and interpersonal perception: Similarities and differences in the social consequences of narcissism, Machiavelliamism, and psychopathy. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 487 – 496. doi: 10.1177/1948550611427608

Rauthmann, J.F., & Kolar, G.P. (2012). How “dark” are the Dark Triad traits? Examining the perceived darkness of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 884 – 889. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2012.06.020

Raykov, T. (2001). Bias in coefficient alpha for fixed congeneric measures with correlated errors. Applied Psychological Measurement, 25(1), 69 – 76. doi: 10.1177/01466216010251005

Raykov, T., & Hancock, G. R. (2005). Examining change in maximal reliability for multiple-component measuring instruments. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 58(1), 65–82. doi: 10.1348/000711005X38753

Reise, S.P. (2012). The rediscovery of bifactor measurement models. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 47(5), 667-696. doi: 10.1080/00273171.2012.715555

Reise, S.P. Scheines, R., Widaman, K.F., & Haviland, M.G. (2013). Multidimensionality and structural coefficient bias in structural equation modeling: A bifactor perspective. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 73(1), 5 – 26. doi: 10.1177/0013164412449831

Robins, R.W., Hendin, H., & Trzeaniewski, K. (2001). Measuring Global Self-Esteem: Construct validation of a single-item measure and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 151-161. doi: 10.1177/0146167201272002

Robins, R. W., Trzesniewski, K. H., Tracy, J. L., Gosling, S. D. & Potter, J. (2002). Global self-esteem across the life-span. Psychology and Aging, 17, 423-434. doi: 10.1037/0882-7974.17.3.423

Rodriguez, A., Reise, S.P., & Haviland, M.G. (2015). Evaluating bifactor models: calculating and interpreting statistical índices. Psychological Methods. Avance online.

Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (1994). Corrections to test statistics and standard errors in covariance structure analysis. In A. von Eye & C. C. Clogg (Eds.), Latent variables analysis: Applications for developmental research (pp. 399-419). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Stead, R., Fekken, G.C., Kay, A., & McDermott, K. (2012). Conceptualizing the Dark Triad of personality: Links to social symptomatology. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 1023 – 1028. doi: :10.1016/j.paid.2012.07.021

Stucky, B.D., Thissen, D., & Edelen, M.O. (2013). Using logistic approximations of marginal trace lines to develop short assessments. Applied Psychological Measurement, 37(1), 41 – 57. doi: 10.1177/0146621612462759

Tamura, A., Oshio, A., Tanaka, K., Masui, K., & Jonason, P.K. (2015). Development, reliability, and validity of the Japanese version of Dark Triad Dirty Dozen (DTDD-J). Japanese Journal of Personality, 1, 26-37. doi: 10.2132/personality.24.26

Terracciano, A., & McCrae, R. R. (2006). Cross-cultural studies of Personality Traits and their relevance to psychiatry. Epidemiologia E Psichiatria Sociale, 15(3), 176–184. doi: 10.1017/S1121189X00004425

Terwee, C.B., Bot, S.D.M., de Boer, M.R., van der Windt, D.A.W.M., Knol, D.L., Dekker, J., Bouter, L.M., & de Vet, H.C.W. (2007). Quality criteria were proposed for measurement properties of health status questionnaires. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 60(1), 34-42. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2006.03.012

Vaughan, R., Madigan, D. J., Carter, G. L., & Nicholls, A. R. (2019). The Dark Triad in male and female athletes and non-athletes: Group differences and psychometric properties of the Short Dark Triad (SD3). Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 43, 64-72. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2019.01.002

Veloso Gouveia, V., Pereira Monteiro, R., Veloso Gouveia, R. S., Alves Aguiar Athayde, R., & Medeiros Cavalcanti, T. (2016). Avaliando o lado sombrio da personalidade: Evidências psicométricas do Dark Triad Dirty Dozen. Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 50(3).

Wai, M., & Tiliopoulos, N. (2012). The affective and cognitive empathetic nature of the dark triad of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 794 – 799. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2012.01.008

Webster, G.D., & Jonason, P.K. (2013). Putting the “IRT” in “Dirty”: Item Response Theory analyses of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen—An efficient measure of narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 302-306. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2012.08.027

Zinbarg, R. E., Yovel, I., Revelle, W., & McDonald, R. P. (2006). Estimating generalizability to a latent variable common to all of a scale’s indicators: A comparison of estimators for ωh. Applied Psychological Measurement, 30(2), 121-144. doi: 10.1177/0146621605278814

Zumbo, B. D., Gadermann, A. M., & Zeisser, C. (2007). Ordinal versions of coefficients alpha and theta for Likert rating scales. Journal of modern applied statistical methods, 6(1), 4.




Cómo citar

Copez Lonzoy, A., Dominguez-Lara, S., & Merino-Soto, C. (2020). ¿Inestabilidad en el lado oscuro? estructura factorial, invarianza de medición y fiabilidad de la Dirty Dozen Dark Triad en población general de Lima. Revista De Psicopatología Y Psicología Clínica, 24(3), 153–162. https://doi.org/10.5944/rppc.24335



Artículos de investigación originales