Intervenciones para mejorar la salud psicológica y los procesos cognitivos, emocionales y comportamentales en niños y adolescentes víctimas de conflicto armado. Una revisión sistemática.

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5944/rppc.26747

Palabras clave:

Conflicto armado, intervención psicológica, niños y adolescentes, revisión sistemática.

Resumen

Los conflictos armados están relacionados con dificultades sociales, económicas, políticas y culturales que afectan directamente a las personas en situaciones más vulnerables. Millones de niños viven en países inmersos en el conflicto armado y han sido víctimas de migración forzosa, desintegración familiar y testigos de eventos traumáticos. El objetivo de esta revisión fue evaluar la calidad y eficacia de los tratamientos psicológicos dirigidos a niños y adolescentes víctimas de conflicto armado. Se analizó la literatura existente desde enero de 2009 hasta diciembre de 2019 mediante una búsqueda sistemática en las bases de datos Cochrane, Scopus, WoS, ProQuest, Pubmed, Sciencedirect y PsycINFO. Se destaca un interés creciente de la investigación científica por la intervención psicológica en contextos de crisis humanitarias. Existen ensayos clínicos de calidad con la inclusión de muestras representativas, evaluaciones de seguimiento y tratamientos que incluyen la familia del niño como eje de posibles cambios positivos a nivel cognitivo, emocional y comportamental.

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Biografía del autor/a

Cristian Villanueva-Bonilla, Institución Universitaria Politécnico Grancolombiano, Colombia. Universidad Surcolombiana, Colombia. Universidad de San Buenaventura, Colombia.

Psicólogo. Auxiliar de investigación, Institución Universitaria Politécnico Grancolombiano. Joven Investigador Colciencias, Universidad Surcolombiana. Estudiante de la Maestría en Neuropsicología de la Universidad de San Buenaventura sede Medellín, Colombia.

Ángela Magnolia Ríos-Gallardo, Institución Universitaria Politécnico Grancolombiano, Colombia

PhD. Neurociencia Cognitiva. Gerente de Aseguramiento de la Calidad, Institución Universitaria Politécnico Grancolombiano.

Citas

Annan, J., Sim, A., Puffer, E. S., Salhi, C., & Betancourt, T. S. (2017). Improving mental health outcomes of burmese migrant and displaced children in thailand: A community-based randomized controlled trial of a parenting and family skills intervention. Prevention Science, 18(7), 793-803. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-016-0728-2

Barron, I., Abdallah, G., & Heltne, U. (2016). Randomized control trial of teaching recovery techniques in rural occupied palestine: Effect on adolescent dissociation. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma, 25(9), 955-973. https://doi.org/10.1080/10926771.2016.1231149

Barron, I., Abdallah, G., & Smith, P. (2013). Randomized control trial of a CBT trauma recovery program in palestinian schools. Journal of Loss y Trauma, 18(4), 306-321. https://doi.org/10.1080/15325024.2012.688712

Berger, R., Gelkopf, M., & Heineberg, Y. (2012). A teacher-delivered intervention for adolescents exposed to ongoing and intense traumatic war-related stress: A quasi-randomized controlled study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 51(5), 453-461. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.02.011

Betancourt, T. S., Borisova, I., Williams, T. P., Meyers-Ohki, S. E., Rubin-Smith, J. E., Annan, J., & Kohrt, B. A. (2013a). Research review: Psychosocial adjustment and mental health in former child soldiers-A systematic review of the literature and recommendations for future research. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 54(1), 17-36. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02620.x

Betancourt, T. S., Meyers-Ohki, S. E., Charrow, A. P., & Tol, W. A. (2013b). Interventions for children affected by war: An ecological perspective on psychosocial support and mental health care. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 21(2), 70-91. https://doi.org/10.1097/HRP.0b013e318283bf8f

Brown, F. L., de Graaff, A. M., Annan, J., & Betancourt, T. S. (2017). Annual Research Review: Breaking cycles of violence–a systematic review and common practice elements analysis of psychosocial interventions for children and youth affected by armed conflict. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 58(4), 507-524. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12671

Castro-Camacho, L., Moreno, J. D., & Naismith, I. (2019). Contextual adaptation of the unified protocol for the transdiagnostic treatment of emotional disorders in victims of the armed conflict in Colombia: A case study. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 26(2), 366-380. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2018.09.002

Catani, C., Kohiladevy, M., Ruf, M., Schauer, E., Elbert, T., & Neuner, F. (2009). Treating children traumatized by war and Tsunami: A comparison between exposure therapy and meditation-relaxation in North-East Sri Lanka. BMC Psychiatry, 9-22. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244x-9-22

Dajani, R., Hadfield, K., van Uum, S., Greff, M., & Panter-Brick, C. (2018). Hair cortisol concentrations in war-affected adolescents: A prospective intervention trial. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 89, 138-146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2017.12.012

Dawson, K., Joscelyne, A., Meijer, C., Steel, Z., Silove, D., & Bryant, R. A. (2018). A controlled trial of trauma-focused therapy versus problem-solving in Islamic children affected by civil conflict and disaster in Aceh, Indonesia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 52(3), 253-261. https://doi.org/10.1177/0004867417714333

De Voe, E. R., Paris, M. A. R., Ross, A., & Acker, M. (2017). A randomized clinical trial of a postdeployment parenting intervention for service members and their families with very young children. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 9, 25-34. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000196

Deblinger, E., Mannarino, A. P., Cohen, J. A., Runyon, M. K., & Steer, R. A. (2011). Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for children: Impact of the trauma narrative and treatment length. Depression and Anxiety, 28(1), 67-75. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.20744

Dimitry, L. (2012). A systematic review on the mental health of children and adolescents in areas of armed conflict in the Middle East. Child Care Health and Development, 38(2), 153-161. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.2011.01246.x

Gewirtz, A. H., DeGarmo, D. S., & Zamir, O. (2018). After deployment, adaptive parenting tools: 1-year outcomes of an evidence-based parenting program for military families following deployment. Prevention Science, 19(4), 589-599. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-017-0839-4

Gillies, D., Maiocchi, L., Bhandari, A. P., Taylor, F., Gray, C., & O'Brien, L. (2016). Psychological therapies for children and adolescents exposed to trauma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 10, 1-221. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012371

Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. www.cochrane-handbook.org.

Influs, M., Masalha, S., Zagoory-Shaon, O., & Feldman, R. (2019). Dialogue intervention to youth amidst intractable conflict attenuates stress response to outgroup. Hormones and Behavior, 110, 68-76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2019.02.013

Jordans, M., Pigott, H., & Tol, W. A. (2016). Interventions for children affected by armed conflict: A systematic review of mental health and psychosocial support in low- and middle-income countries. Current Psychiatry Reports, 18(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-015-0648-z

Jordans, M. J., Komproe, I. H., Tol, W. A., Kohrt, B. A., Luitel, N. P., Macy, R. D., & de Jong, J. T. (2010). Evaluation of a classroom-based psychosocial intervention in conflict-affected Nepal: A cluster randomized controlled trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(7), 818-826. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02209.x

Jordans, M. J. D., Tol, W. A., Komproe, I. H., & De Jong, J. V. T. M. (2009). Systematic review of evidence and treatment approaches: Psychosocial and mental health care for children in war. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 14(1), 2-14. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-3588.2008.00515.x

Kalantari, M., Yule, W., Dyregrov, A., Neshatdoost, H., & Ahmadi, S. J. (2012). Efficacy of writing for recovery on traumatic grief symptoms of afghani refugee bereaved adolescents: A randomized control trial. Omega (United States), 65(2), 139-150. https://doi.org/10.2190/OM.65.2.d

Lange-Nielsen, II, Kolltveit, S., Thabet, A. A. M., Dyregrov, A., Pallesen, S., Johnsen, T. B., & Laberg, J. C. (2012). Short-term effects of a writing intervention among adolescents in Gaza. Journal of Loss y Trauma, 17(5), 403-422. https://doi.org/10.1080/15325024.2011.650128

Layne, C. M., Saltzman, W. R., Poppleton, L., Burlingame, G. M., Pašalić, A., Duraković, E., Music, M., Campara, N., Dapo, N., Arslanagic, B., Steinberg, A., & Pynoos, R. S. (2008). Effectiveness of a school-based group psychotherapy program for war-exposed adolescents: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(9), 1048-1062. https://doi.org/10.1097/CHI.0b013e31817eecae

Lee-Koo, K. (2018). 'The intolerable impact of armed conflict on children': The united nations security council and the protection of children in armed conflict. Global Responsibility to Protect, 10(1-2), 57-74. https://doi.org/10.1163/1875984X-01001004

Márquez, Y. I., Deblinger, E., & Dovi, A. T. (2020). The value of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) in addressing the therapeutic needs of trafficked youth: A case study. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 1-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2019.10.001

McMullen, J., O'Callaghan, P., Shannon, C., Black, A., & Eakin, J. (2013). Group trauma-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy with former child soldiers and other war-affected boys in the DR Congo: A randomised controlled trial. Journal of Child Psychology y Psychiatry, 54(11), 1231-1241. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12094

Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., & Altman, D. G. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. Annals of internal medicine, 151(4), 264-269.

Murray, L. K., Skavenski, S., Kane, J. C., Mayeya, J., Dorsey, S., Cohen, J. A., Michalopoulos, L., Imasiku, M., & Bolton, P. A. (2015). Effectiveness of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy among trauma-affected children in Lusaka, Zambia A randomized clinical trial. Jama Pediatrics, 169(8), 761-769. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.0580

Norwegian Refugee Council. (2019). Global report on internal displacement 2019. https://www.internal-displacement.org/global-report/grid2019/

O'Callaghan, P., Branham, L., Shannon, C., Betancourt, T. S., Dempster, M., & McMullen, J. (2014). A pilot study of a family focused, psychosocial intervention with war-exposed youth at risk of attack and abduction in north-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Child Abuse and Neglect, 38(7), 1197-1207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2014.02.004

O’Callaghan, P., McMullen, J., Shannon, C., Rafferty, H., & Black, A. (2013). A randomized controlled trial of trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for sexually exploited, war-affected congolese girls. Journal of the American Academy of Child y Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(4), 359-369. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2013.01.013

Ooi, C. S., Rooney, R. M., Roberts, C., Kane, R. T., Wright, B., & Chatzisarantis, N. (2016). The Efficacy of a group cognitive behavioral therapy for war-affected young migrants living in Australia: A cluster randomized controlled trial. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01641

Oprel, D. A. C., Hoeboer, C. M., Schoorl, M., De Kleine, R. A., Wigard, I. G., Cloitre, M., Van Minnen, A., & Van Der Does, W. (2018). Improving treatment for patients with childhood abuse related posttraumatic stress disorder (IMPACT study): Protocol for a multicenter randomized trial comparing prolonged exposure with intensified prolonged exposure and phase-based treatment. BMC Psychiatry, 18(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-018-1967-5

Panter-Brick, C., Dajani, R., Eggerman, M., Hermosilla, S., Sancilio, A., & Ager, A. (2018). Insecurity, distress and mental health: Experimental and randomized controlled trials of a psychosocial intervention for youth affected by the Syrian crisis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 59(5), 523-541. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12832

Puffer, E. S., Green, E. P., Chase, R. M., Sim, A. L., Zayzay, J., Friis, E., García-Rolland, E., & Boone, L. (2015). Parents make the difference: A randomized-controlled trial of a parenting intervention in Liberia. Global Mental Health, 2, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1017/gmh.2015.12

Purgato, M., Gastaldon, C., Papola, D., van Ommeren, M., Barbui, C., & Tol, W. A. (2018). Psychological therapies for the treatment of mental disorders in low- and middle-income countries affected by humanitarian crises. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 6, 390-400. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD011849.pub2

Qouta, S. R., Palosaari, E., Diab, M., & Punamaki, R.-L. (2012). Intervention effectiveness among war-affected children: A cluster randomized controlled trial on improving mental health. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25(3), 288-298. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.21707

Richards, J., Foster, C., Townsend, N., & Bauman, A. (2014). Physical fitness and mental health impact of a sport-for-development intervention in a post-conflict setting: randomised controlled trial nested within an observational study of adolescents in Gulu, Uganda. BMC Public Health, 14, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-619

Robjant, K., Koebach, A., Schmitt, S., Chibashimba, A., Carleial, S., & Elbert, T. (2019). The treatment of posttraumatic stress symptoms and aggression in female former child soldiers using adapted narrative exposure therapy – a RCT in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 123, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.103482

Shechtman, Z & Mor, M. (2010). Groups for children and adolescents with trauma-related symptoms: Outcomes and processes. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 60(2), 221-244. https://doi.org/10.1521/ijgp.2010.60.2.221

Slone, M., Shoshani, A., & Lobel, T. (2013). Helping youth immediately following war exposure: A randomized controlled trial of a school-based intervention program. Journal of Primary Prevention, 34(5), 293-307. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10935-013-0314-3

Tol, W. A., Komproe, I. H., Jordans, M. J., Ndayisaba, A., Ntamutumba, P., Sipsma, H., Smallegange, E., Macy, R., & de Jong, J. T. (2014). School-based mental health intervention for children in war-affected Burundi: A cluster randomized trial. BMC Med, 12, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/1741-7015-12-56

Tol, W. A., Song, S., & Jordans, M. J. D. (2013). Annual research review: Resilience and mental health in children and adolescents living in areas of armed conflict - A systematic review of findings in low- and middle-income countries. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 54(4), 445-460. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12053

Villanueva-Bonilla, C y Ríos-Gallardo, Á. M. (2018). Factores protectores y de riesgo del trastorno de conducta y del trastorno de déficit de atención e hiperactividad. Una revisión sistemática. Revista de Psicopatología y Psicología Clínica, 23(1), 59-73.

Zhang, N., Zhang, J., & Gewirtz, A. H. (2019). Do less mindful mothers show better parenting via improvements in trait mindfulness following a military parent training program? Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00909

Descargas

Publicado

2021-08-13 — Actualizado el 2021-08-13

Versiones

Cómo citar

Villanueva-Bonilla, C., & Ríos-Gallardo, Ángela M. (2021). Intervenciones para mejorar la salud psicológica y los procesos cognitivos, emocionales y comportamentales en niños y adolescentes víctimas de conflicto armado. Una revisión sistemática. Revista De Psicopatología Y Psicología Clínica, 26(2), 155–170. https://doi.org/10.5944/rppc.26747

Número

Sección

Revisiones Sistemáticas