Evaluation of Emotional Regulation: Psychometric Indicators of the RPA Instrument in Spanish Population





emotion regulation, possitive affect, dampening, possitive rumination, GHQ-28, SPSRQ, psy-chometric properties


Possitive affect has often been neglected throughout research in clinical psychology, with respect to its parallel dimension: Negative affect. This study analyses the psychometric properties of the Response to Positive Affect scale in order for it to be adapted and validated in Spanish population. The scale measures people reaction to the emotions experienced from positive situations (emotion regulation). According to the authors of the scale, it is compossed by three factors: Dampening, Emotion-focused possitive rumination and Self-focused possitive rumination. An exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were carried out, with 970 participants from general and clinical population, along with analyses about internal consistency, invariance analysis for gender and group (patients/controls) and concurrent validity. The factors obtained were the same as the ones proposed by the creators of the original scale. Furthermore, the values for internal consistency were adecuate, invariance for sex and group (patients/controls), as well as the correlations with the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (sensitivity to punishment and reward). The scale has good psychometric properties. The Response to Positive Affect scale is an instrument that can allow the study and analysis of positive rumination and damping, therefore, the regulation of positive emotional states, complementing other instruments focused on processes as rumination or negative affectivity. It can be particularly useful for the evaluation, follow-up, and planning of the intervention in anxiety, depressive, and bipolar disorders, among others, when analyzing characteristics of emotional regulation.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Margarita Hidalgo García, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

Departamento de Personalidad, Evaluación y Tratamiento Psicológicos

Rafael Martínez Cervantes, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

Departamento de Psicología Experimental

Cristina Senín-Calderón, Universidad de Cádiz (Spain)

Departamento de Psicología

Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Testal, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

Departamento de Personalidad, Evaluación y Tratamiento Psicológicos.


Aldao, A. y Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2010). Specificity of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies: A Transdiagnostic Examination. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48(10), 974–983. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2010.06.002

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Text Revision. DSM-IV-TR (4th ed.). Washington DC: Autor.

Amor, P. J., Holgado-Tello, F. P., Lasa-Aristu, A., Domínguez-Sánchez, F. J. y Delgado, B. (2015). Estructura factorial de la Escala de Balance Afectivo en población normativa [Factorial Structure of the Affect Balance Scale in a normative population]. Clinica y Salud, 26(2), 73–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clysa.2015.03.001

Baumgartner, H. y Homburg, C. (1996). Applications of Structural Equation Modeling in Marketing and Consumer Research: A Review. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 13(2), 139–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-8116(95)00038-0

Bradburn, N. M. (1969). The Structure of Psychological Well-being. Chicago, IL: Aldine.

Brown, T. y Barlow, D. (2009). A Proposal for a Dimensional Classification System based on the Shared Features of the DSM-IV Anxiety and Mood Disorders: Implications for Assessment and Treatment. Psychological Assessment, 21, 256–271. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016608

Carver, C. S. y Johnson, S. L. (2009). Tendencies toward mania and tendencies toward depression have distinct motivational, affective, and cognitive correlates. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 33, 552–569. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-008-9213-y

Carver, C. S. y White, T. L. (1994). Behavioral Inhibition, Behavorial Activation, and Affective Responses to Impending Reward and Punishment: The BIS/BAS Scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(2), 319–333. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.67.2.319

Cheung, G. W. y Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating Goodness-of- Fit Indexes for Testing Measurement Invariance. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 9(2), 233–255. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328007SEM0902

Corr, P. J. y Cooper, A. (2016). The Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality Questionnaire (RST-PQ): Development and Validation. Psychological Assessment. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000273

Edge, M. D., Miller, C. J., Muhtadie, L., Johnson, S. L., Carver, C. S., Marquinez, N. y Gotlib, I. H. (2013). People with Bipolar I Disorder Report Avoiding Rewarding Activities and Dampening Positive Emotion. Journal of Affective Disorders, 146, 407–413. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2012.07.027

Feldman, G. C., Joormann, J. y Johnson, S. L. (2008). Responses to Positive Affect: A Self-Report Measure of Rumination and Dampening. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32(4), 507–525. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-006-9083-0

Fernandez, K. C., Jazaieri, H. y Gross, J. J. (2016). Emotion Regulation: A Transdiagnostic Perspective on a New RDoC Domain. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 40(3), 426–440. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-016-9772-2

Gray, J. A. (1987). Perspectives on Anxiety and Impulsivity: A Commentary. Journal of Research in Personality, 21(4), 493–509. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/0092-6566(87)90036-5

Gray, J. A. y McNaughton, N. (2000). The Neuropsychology of Anxiety: An Enquiry into the Functions of the Septo-hippocampal System. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Gross, J. J. (1998). The Emerging Field of Emotion Regulation: An Integrative Review. Review of General Psychology, 2(5), 271–299. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.2.3.271

Gruber, J., Eidelman, P., Johnson, S. L., Smith, B. y Harvey, A. G. (2011). Hooked on a Feeling: Rumination about Positive and Negative Emotion in Inter-episode Bipolar Disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120, 956–961. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023667

Johnson, S. L. y Jones, S. (2009). Cognitive Correlates of Mania Risk: Are Responses to Success, Positive Moods, and Manic Symptoms Distinct or Overlapping? Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65, 891–905. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20585

Johnson, S. L., McKenzie, G. L. y McMurrich, S. (2008). Ruminative Responses to Negative and Positive Affect among Students Diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32, 702–713. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-007-9158-6

Johnson, S. L., Ruggero, C., y Carver, C. (2005). Cognitive, Behavioral, and Affective Responses to Reward: Links with Hypomanic Symptoms. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24, 894–906. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2005.24.6.894

Johnson, S. L., Swerdlow, B. A., Treadway, M., Tharp, J. T. y Carver, C. S. (2017). Willingness to Expend Effort Toward Reward and Extreme Ambitions in Bipolar I Disorder. Clinical Psychological Science, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167702617718181

Johnson, S. L., Turner, R. J. e Iwata, N. (2003). BIS/BAS Levels and Psychiatric Disorder: An Epidemiological Study. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 25 (1), 25–36. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022247919288

Klemanski, D. H., Curtiss, J., McLaughlin, K. A. y Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2017). Emotion Regulation and the Transdiagnostic Role of Repetitive Negative Thinking in Adolescents with Social Anxiety and Depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 41, 206–219. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-016-9817-6

Lazarus, R. S., y Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York, NY: Springer.

Liu, X., Gao, F., Wu, Y. y Zhao, Z. (2018). Detecting Outliers and Influential Points: An Indirect Classical Mahalanobis Distance-based Method. Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, 88(11), 2013–2033. https://doi.org/10.1080/00949655.2018.1448981

Lobo, A., Pérez-Echeverría, M. J. y Artal, J. (1986). Validity of the Scale Version of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) in a Spanish Population. Psychological Medicine, 16, 135–140. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291700002579

Lorenzo-Seva, U. y Ferrando, P. J. (2013). FACTOR 9.2 A Comprehensive Program for Fitting Exploratory and Semiconfirmatory Factor Analysis and IRT Models. Applied Psychological Measurement, 37(6), 497–498. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146621613487794

Nelis, S., Holmes, E. A. y Raes, F. (2015). Response Styles to Positive Affect and Depression: Concurrent and Prospective Associations in a Community Sample. Cognitive Therapy, and Research, 39, 480–491. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-015-9671-y

Nelis, S., Luyckx, K., Feldman, G., Bastin, M., Raes, F. y Bijttebier, P. (2016). Assesing Response Styles to Positive Affect: One or Two Dimensions of Positive Rumination in the Response to Positive Affect Questionnaire? Personality and Individual Differences, 89, 40–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.09.031

Olino, T. M. (2016). Future Research Directions in the Positive Valence Systems: Measurement, Development, and Implications for Youth Unipolar Depression. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 45(5), 681–705. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2015.1118694

Salavert, J., Caseras, X., Torrubia, R., Furest, S., Arranz, B., Duenas, R. y San, L. (2007). The Functioning of the Behavioral Activation and Inhibition Systems in Bipolar I Euthymic Patients and its Influence in Subsequent Episodes over an Eighteen-month Period. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 1323–1331. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.10.010

Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., y Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the Fit of Structural Equation Models: Tests of Significance and Descriptive Goodness-of-Fit Measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8(2), 23–74. https://doi.org/10.1002/0470010940

Sloan, E., Hall, K., Moulding, R., Bryce, S., Mildred, H., y Staiger, P. K. (2017). Emotion Regulation as a Transdiagnostic Treatment Construct across Anxiety, Depression, Substance, Eating, and Borderline Personality Disorders: A Systematic Review. Clinical Psychology Review, 57, 141–163. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.cpr.2017.09.002

Snyder, H. R., Miyake, A. y Hankin, B. L. (2015). Advancing Understanding of Executive Function Impairments and Psychopathology: Bridging the Gap between Clinical and Cognitive Approaches. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1–24. https://doi.org/ 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00328.

Stanton, K., Khoo, S., Watson, D., Gruber, J., Zimmerman, M. y Weinstock, L. M. (2018). Unique and Transdiagnostic Symptoms of Hypomania/Mania and Unipolar Depression. Clinical Psychological Science. https://doi.org/10.1177/2167702618812725

Tellegen, A. (1985). Structures of Mood and Personality and their Relevance to Assessing Anxiety, with an Emphasis on Self-report. En A. H. Tuma y J. D. Maser (Eds.), Anxiety and the Anxiety Disorders (pp. 681–706). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Torrubia, R., Avila, C., Molto, J. y Caseras, X. (2001). The Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ) as a Measure of Gray’s Anxiety and Impulsivity Dimensions. Personality and Individual Differences, 31, 837–862. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00183-5

Warr, P. B., Barter, J. y Brownbridge, G. (1983). On the Independence of Positive and Negative Affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 644–651. https://doi.org/10.1037/00223514.44.3.644

Watson, D. y Stasik, S. M., Ellickson-Larew, S. y Stanton, K. (2015). Extraversion and Psychopathology: A Facet-Level Analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 124(2), 432–446. https://doi.org/10.1037/abn0000051

Watson, D., Clark, L. A. y Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and Validation of Brief Measures of Positive and Negative Affect: The PANAS Scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063–1070. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.54.6.1063

Watson, D. y Naragon-Gainey, K. (2010). On the Specificity of Positive Emotional Dysfunction in Psychopathology: Evidence from the Mood and Anxiety Disorders and Schizophrenia/Schizotypy. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 839–848. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2009.ll.002

Yoon, S., Dang, V., Mertz, J. y Rottenberg, J. (2018). Are Attitudes towards Emotions Associated with Depression? A Conceptual and Meta-analytic Review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 232, 329–340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.02.009



How to Cite

Hidalgo García, M., Martínez Cervantes, R., Senín-Calderón, C., & Rodríguez-Testal, J. F. (2019). Evaluation of Emotional Regulation: Psychometric Indicators of the RPA Instrument in Spanish Population. Acción Psicológica, 16(1), 43–62. https://doi.org/10.5944/ap.16.1.22180



Artículos de temática libre [Selection of articles]