Un modelo integrador de proceso para la psicopatología y la psicoterapia


  • Arthur C. Bohart California State University Dominguez Hills



Palabras clave:

terapias, teorias, feedback, cambio terapéutico, rasgos de personalidad


Vivir satisfactoriamente implica ser capaz de responder eficazmente al flujo continuo de nueva información generada por las interacciones con situaciones específicas. Los planes generalizados, esquemas y constructos han de revisarse continuamente para acomodarlos a las variaciones y cambios constantes que constituyen el flujo de la vida cotidiana. La capacidad para responder de forma productiva y orientada al domino al feedback que indica que uno se encuentra ante un problema o bloqueo es de especial importancia. Las diferentes terapias son teorías sobre cómo los individuos no consiguen enfrentarse productivamente a dicho feedback problemático. También aportan modelos de procesamiento productivo de dicho feedback. La patología es más una cuestión de incapacidad de aprender del feedback que de distorsiones o conductas disfuncionales per se. La relación de uno consigo mismo es crucial de cara al funcionamiento efectivo. Aprender a mantener una relación productiva con uno mismo ante los problemas es la meta de la psicoterapia. El cambio terapéutico no siempre ha de ser de segundo orden. Un cambio productivo de primer orden consiste en sacar provecho del potencial implícito en los esquemas nucleares o rasgos de personalidad y hacerlos evolucionar de forma funcional.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.


Aanstos, C.M. (Ed.) (1990). Psychology and Postmodernity. The Humanistic Psychologist (special issue), 18 (1), 2-123.

Abramson, L.Y., Metalksy, G.I., Alloy, L.B, (1988). The hopelessness theory of depression: Does the research test the theory? In L.Y. Abramson (Ed.), Social cognition and clinical psychology: A synthesis (pp. 33-65). New York: Guilford.

Andrews, J.D.W. (1991), The active self in psychotherapy: An integration of therapeutic styles. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Appelbaum, S.A. (1976). The dangerous edge of insight. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 13, 202-206.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social-cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American Psychologist, 44, 1175-1184.

Beck, A.T., Emery, G., Greenberg, RL. (1985). Anxiety disorders and phobias: A cognitive perspective. New York: Basic Books.

Beck, A.T., Rush, A., Shaw, B., Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford.

Bohart, A.C. (unpublished). Becoming the self that one is: An implicational view of personal change. Manuscript submitted to Person-Centered Review.

Bohart, A.C. (1982). Similarities between cognitive and humanistic approaches to psychotherapy. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6, 245-250.

Bohart, A.C. (1983, April). Detachment: A variable common to many psychotherapies? Paper presented at the Western Psychological Association Convention, San Francisco, CA.

Bohart, A.C. (1990a). A cognitive client-centered perspective on borderline personality development. In G. Lietaer, J. Rombauts, R. Van Balen (Eds.), Client-centered and experiential psychotherapy in the nineties (pp. 599-622). Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press.

Bohart, A.C. (1990b). Psychotherapy integration from a client-centered perspective. In G. Lietaer, J. Rombauts, R.Van Balen (Eds.), Client-centered and experiential psychotherapy in the nineties. (pp. 481-506). Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press.

Bohart, A.C. (1991). Empathy in client-centered therapy: A contrast with psychoanalysis and Self-Psychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 31, 34-48.

Bohart, A.C., Todd, J. (1988). Foundations of clinical counseling psychology. New York: Harper & Row.

Bohart, A.C., Wugalter, S. (in press). Change in experiential knowing as a common dimension in psychotherapy. Journal of Integrative and Eclectic Psychotherapy.

Bohart, A.C., Greenberg, L.S., Driscoll, R., Wessler, R. (1991, July). Treating the internal critic. Symposium scheduled for presentation at the Conference of the Society for the Exploration of Psychotherapy Integration, London.

BRIERE, J. (1989). Therapy for adults molested as children. New York: Springer.

Brown, G.W., Harris, T.O., Bifulco, A. (1986). Long-term effects of early loss of parents. In M. Rutter, C.E. Izard, P.B. Read (Eds.), Depression in young people: Developmental and clinical perspectives. (pp.251-296). New York: Guilford.

Callen, M. (1990, November4). Surviving AIDS can happen, but only with “positive coping skills”. Los Angeles Times, pp. M2-M3.

Cantor, N. (1990). From thought to behavior: “Having” and “doing” in the study of personality and cognition. American Psychologist, 45, 735-750.

Cantor, N., Zirkel, S. (1990). Personality, cognition, and purpositive behavior. In L.A. Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research. (pp. 135-164). New York: Guilford.

Carver, C.S., Scheier, M. (1981). Attention and self-regulation. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Constantine, L.L. (1986). Family paradigms: The practice of theory in family therapy. New York: Guilford.

Csikszentmihalyi, M, (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience.

Curtis, R. (in press). Towards an integrative theory of psychological change in individuals and organizations: A cognitive-affective regulation model. In R. Curtis, G. Stricker (Eds.), How people change: inside and outside therapy. New York: Plenum.

De Shazer, S. (1985). Keys to solution in brief therapy. New York: Norton.

Dowd, E.T., Milne, C.R. (1986). Paradoxical interventions in counseling psychology. The Counseling Psychologist, 14, 237-282.

Driscoll, R. (1989). Self condemnation: A comprehensive framework for assessment and treatment. Psychotherapy, 26, 104-111.

Dweck, C.S, Leggett, EL. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95, 256-273.

Ellis, A., Harper, R, (1975). A new guide to rational living. North Hollywood, CA: Wilshire.

Emmons, R.A. (1989). Exploring the relations between motives and traits: The case of narcissism, In D.M. Buss, N. Cantor (Eds.), Personality psychology: Recent trends and emerging directions. (pp. 32-44). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Feixas, G. (1990). Personal construct theory and systemic therapies: Parallel or convergent trends? Journal of marital and Family Therapy, 16, 1-20.

Gendlin, E.T. (1964). A theory of personality change. In P. Worchel, D. Byrne (Eds.), Personality change. (pp.100-148). New York: Wiley.

Gendlin, E.T. (1968). The experiential response. In E. Hammer (Ed.), Use of interpretation in treatment: Technique and art. (pp. 208-227). New York: Grune & Stratton.

Gendlin, E.T. (1982). An introduction to new developments in focusing. The focusing folio, 2, 24-35.

Gendlin, E.T. (1984). The client's client: The edge of awareness. In R.F. Levant & J.M. Shlien (Eds.), Clientcentered therapy and the person-centered approach: New directions in theory, research, and practice. (pp.76-107). New York: Praeger.

Gergen, K.J. (1989). Warranting voice and the elaboration of self. In J. Shotter, K.J. Gergen (Eds.), Texts of identity. (pp. 70-81). London: Sage.

Gibson, J.J. (1979). The ecological approach to visual perception. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Gilligan, C., Brown, L., Rogers, A. (1990), Psyche embedded: A place for body, relationships, and culture in personality theory, In A.I. Rabin, R.A. Zucker, R.A. Emmons, S. Frank (Eds.), Studying persons and lives (pp. 86-147). New York: Springer.

Greenberg, L.S. (1984). A task analysis of intrapersonal conflict resolution, In L.N. Rice, L.S. Greenberg (Eds.), Patterns of change: Intensive analysis of psychotherapy process. (pp. 67-123). New York: Guilford.

Greenberg, L.S., Johnson, S.M. (1988). Emotionally focused therapy for couples. New York: Guilford.

Greenberg, L.S., Safran, J.D. (1981). Encoding and cognitive therapy: Changing what clients attend to. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 18, 163-169.

Greenberg, L.S., Safran, J.D. (1987). Emotion in psychotherapy. New York: Guilford.

Guidano, V.F. (1987). Complexity of the self: A developmental approach to psychopathology and therapy. New York: Guilford.

Hamilton, N.G. (1988). Self and others: object relations theory in practice, Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.

Hobfall, S. (1989). Conservation of resources: a new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44, 513-524.

Hofstader, D.R. (1979). Godel, Escher, Bach: An eternal golden braid. New York: Basic Books.

Howard, G.S. (1986). Dare we develop a human science? Notre Dame, Ind.: Academic Publications.

Howard, G.S. (1991). Culture tales: A narrative approach to thinking, cross-cultural psychology, and psychotherapy. American Psychologist, 46, 187-197,

Janoff-Bulman, R. (1979). Characterologic versus behavioral self-blame: inquires into depression and rape. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1798-1809.

Kahneman, D., Tversky, A. (1984). Choices, values, and frames. American Psychologist, 39, 341-350.

Kanfer, F.H., Gaelick, L. (1986). Self-management methode. In F.H, Kanfer, A.P. Goldstein (Eds.), Helping people change: A textbook of methods (Third edition). (pp. 283-345). New York: Pergamon.

Kelly, G.A. (1955). The psychology of personal constructs (2 Vols.). New York: Norton.

Laing, R.D. (1967). The politics of experience, New York: Pantheon Books.

Langer, E.J., Park, K. (1990). Incompetence: A conceptual reconsideration. In R.J. Sternberg, J. Kolligian, Jr. (Eds.). Competence considered. (pp. 149-166). New Haven: Yale University Press.

Leva, R. (1987). The listening Voice: Rogers and Erickson. Muncie, IN: Accelerated Development.

Little, B.R. (1989), Personal projects analysis: Trivial pursuits, magnificant obsessions, and the search for coherence. In D.M. Buss, N. Cantor (Eds.), Personality Psychology. Recent trends and emerging directions, pp. 15-31). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Luborsky, L. (1984), Principles of psychoanalytic psychotherapy: A manual for supportive-expressive treatment. New York: Basic Books.

Maduro, R.J., Wheelwright, J.B. (1983). Analytical psychology. In R.J. Corsini, A.J. Marsella (Eds.), Personality theories, research and assessment. (pp. 125-188). Itasca, Illinois: Peacock.

Mahoney, M.J. (1985). Psychotherapy and human change processes. In M.J. Mahoney, A. Freeman (Eds.)., Cognition and psychotherapy, (pp. 3-48), New York: Plenum.

Mahoney, M.J. (1991). Human change processes: The scientific foundations of psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books.

Mahrer, A.R. (1989). How to do experiential psychotherapy: a manual for practitioners. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press.

Mahrer, A.R., Nadler, W.P., Sterner, l., White, M.V, (1989). Patterns of organization and sequencing of “good moments” in psychotherapy sessions. Journal of Integrative and Eclectic Psychotherapy, 8, 125-139.

Margulies, A. (1989). The empathic imagination. New York: Norton.

Markus, H., Nurius, P. (1987). Possible selves: The interface between motivation and self-concept. In K, Yardley, T. Honess (Eds.), Self and identity: Psychosocial perspectives. (pp. 157-172), New York: Wiley.

Masterpasqua, F. (1989). A competence paradigm for psychological practice. American Psychologist, 44, 1366-71.

Mathieu-Coughlan, P., Klein, M.H. (1984). Experiential Psychotherapy: Key events in client-therapist interaction. In L.N. Rice, L.S. Greenberg (Eds.), Patterns of change: Intensive analysis of psychotherapy process (pp. 213-248). New York: Guilford.

McAdams, D.P. (1989). The development of a narrative identity, D.M. Buss, N. Cantor (Eds.), Personality psychology: Recent trends and emerging directions. New York: Springer-Verlag.

McCrae, R.R., COSTA, P.T. Jr. (1990). Personality in adulthood. New York: Guilford.

Meichenbaum, D. (1985). Stress inoculation training. New York: Pergamon.

Miller, D.T., Porter, C.A. (1988). Errors and biases in the attribution process. In L. Y. Abramson (Ed.), Social cognition and clinical psychology. a synthesis. (pp. 3-32). New York: Guilford.

Mirosky, J., Ross, C.E. (1989). Social causes of psychological distress. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.

Mischel, W. (1984). Convergences and challenges in the search for consistency. American Psychologist, 39, 351-364.

Norem, J.K. (1989). Cognitive strategies as personality: Effectiveness, specificity, flexibility, and change. In D.M. Buss, N. Cantor (Eds.), Personality psychology: Recent trends and emerging directions (pp. 45-60). New York: Springer-Verlag.

O'Hanlon, W.H., Howard, K. l. (1986). The psychological interior of psychotherapy: Explorations with the Therapy Session Reports. In L.S. Greenberg, W.M. Pinsof (Eds.), The psychotherapeutic process: A research handbook. (pp. 477-502). New York: Guilford.

polster, E. (1987). Every person ‘s life is worth a novel. New York: Norton.

Polster, E. (1990, December). Gestalt therapy: Humanization of technique. (Videotape). Phoenix, AZ: The Milton H. Erickson Foundation.

Rice, L.N., Greenberg, L.S. (1990). Fundamental dimensions in experiential therapy: New directions in research. In G. Lietaer, J. Rombauts, R. Van Balen (eds.), Client-centered and experiential therapy in the nineties (pp. 397-414). Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press.

RIce, L.N., SAPERIA, E.P. (1984). Patterns of change: Intensive analysis of psychotherapy process. (pp. 29-66). New York: Guilford.

Rogers, C.R. (1961). On becoming a person. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.

Rogers, C.R. (1980). A way of being. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Rychlak, J.F. (1988). The psychology of rigorous humanism (2nd ed.). New York: New York University Press.

Ryle, A. (1982). Psychotherapy: A cognitive integration of theory and practice. London: Academic Press.

sarbin, T.R. (1990) The narrative quality of action. Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 10, 49-65.

Safran, J.D., Segal, Z.V, (1990). Interpersonal process in cognitive therapy. New York: Basic Books.

Schacter, S. (1982). Recidivism and self-cure of smoking and obesity. American Psychologist, 37, 436-444.

Seligman, M.E.P. (1989). Research in clinical psychology: Why is there so much depression today? In 1.5. Cohen (Ed.), The G. Stanley Hall lecture series, vol. 9 (pp. 79-96). Washington, D.C.: The American Psychological Association.

Shlien, J.M. (1988, September). The future in more important than the past in determining present behavior. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Client-centered and Experiential Psychotherapy, Leuven, Belgium.

Shotter, J. (1989), Social accountability and the social construction of “you”. In J. Shotter & K.J. Gergen (Eds.), Texts of identity. (pp. 133-151). London: Sage.

Shotter, J., Gergen, K.J. (Eds.). (1989). Texts of identity. London: Sage.

Smith, D.L. (1989). Psychotherapy and narration: The contribution of Paul Ricoeur. The Humanistic Psychologist, 16, 323-330.

Spence, D. (1982). Narrative truth and historical truth. New York: Norton.

Steketee, G., Foa, E.B. (1985). Obsessive-compulsive disorder. In D.H. Barlow (Ed.), Clinical handbook of psychological disorders. (pp. 69-144). New York: Guilford.

Sternberg, R.J., Kolligian, J. Jr. (Eds.). (1990). Competence considered. New Haven: Yale University.




Cómo citar

Bohart, A. C. (1992). Un modelo integrador de proceso para la psicopatología y la psicoterapia. Revista de Psicoterapia, 3(9), 49–74. https://doi.org/10.33898/rdp.v3i9.987



Artículo de monográfico