Los reinos perdidos. Arqueología del estado en el Cuerno de África


  • Alfredo González-Ruibal Incipit-CSIC



Palabras clave:

Etiopía; Somalia; Sudá; formación del estado; colapso estatal; resistencia social.


El Cuerno de África fue la cuna de los estados más antiguos del África Subsahariana, pero son escasamente conocidos y raramente se tienen en cuenta en discusiones generales sobre el origen de las sociedades jerarquizadas y las formaciones estatales. Sin embargo, durante tres milenios, el Cuerno fue testigo de la emergencia, desarrollo y colapso de diferentes organizaciones estatales, las cuales con frecuencia contradicen nuestras concepciones de lo que es un estado. Tienen mucho en común con otros estados africanos, como sus tendencias heterárquicas o la importancia de los símbolos materiales, los mitos y el ritual. En este artículo paso revista a los diferentes modelos de estado que se pueden identificar en el Cuerno de África desde una perspectiva arqueológica. Se advierten varios rasgos generales, como el carácter fragmentario y heterogéneo de su territorio, las fronteras porosas, la persistencia de comunidades no asimiladas en el interior del estado o la tendencia a la fisión y el colapso, que se relaciona con una fricción permanente entre fuerzas centrípetas y centrífugas.


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Cómo citar

González-Ruibal, A. (2021). Los reinos perdidos. Arqueología del estado en el Cuerno de África. Espacio Tiempo y Forma. Serie I, Prehistoria y Arqueología, (14), 155–182. https://doi.org/10.5944/etfi.14.2021.32055