Historia y Memoria de la Educación https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe <table border="0" width="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" align="left"> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" width="227"><img src="http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/management/settings/context//public/site/images/acanales/PORTADA_14_50.jpg" alt="" /> </td> <td valign="top" width="57"> <p><em> </em></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="530"> <p><em>Historia y Memoria de la Educación</em> is the journal of the Spanish Society of History of Education (<a href="http://sedhe.es/">SEDHE</a>) </p> <p><em>Historia y Memoria de la Educación</em> publishes research articles, bibliographic essays, reviews and other collaborations pertaining to the realm of the History of Education. <em> </em></p> <p>Manuscripts submitted to <em>Historia y Memoria de la Educación</em> for publication must meet the criteria regarding academic rigor, depth, originality, and specialization that are to be expected from a scientific-academic journal. They should also constitute a relevant, meaningful contribution to the field of the History of Education. </p> <p>All manuscripts published in the journal <em>Historia y Memoria de la Educación</em> will be previously peer reviewed by two external referees, in accordance with the double-blinded system.</p> <p><em>Historia y Memoria de la Educación</em> is published on a semi-annual basis by the Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED) </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> <img src="http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/management/settings/context//public/site/images/acanales/SCOPUS1.jpg" alt="" /> </p> <p> <img src="http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/management/settings/context//public/site/images/acanales/ESCI_702.jpg" alt="" width="147" height="146" /></p> <p><img src="http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/management/settings/context/undefined" /></p> <p> </p> </td> <td valign="top" width="321"> <p><em> </em></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" width="227"> <p> </p> </td> <td valign="top" width="57"> <p><em> </em></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="530"> <p><em> </em></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="321"> <p><em> </em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> UNED en-US Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2444-0043 <p>Authors who publish in <em>Historia y Memoria de la Educación</em> agree to the following terms:</p><ul><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ul> Presentation. Alternative pedagogies and education on the margins https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/39002 <p>Presentation</p> Sergio Valero Gómez Copyright (c) 2023 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-20 2024-01-20 19 11 14 10.5944/hme.19.2024.39002 Ricardo Mella Cea, anarchism, Utopia and Education https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/38242 <p><span class="fontstyle0">In Spain, starting from the mid-19th century, the anarchist movement paid great attention to cultural and educational issues resulting from the influence of the ideas derived from the First International. This led, in our country, to a commitment to the integral education model that Paul Robin had proposed to internationalists as an educational program. This choice was endorsed by the Second Spanish Regional Congress of the International Workers’ Association in Zaragoza in 1872 with the approval of Trinidad oriano’s project. This movement included what is likely to be the first exploration of the subject of education by Ricardo Mella Cea, a key figure of the anarchist movement in Spain in the last quarter of the 19th century. The influence of these comprehensive education proposals can be seen quite clearly in a brief utopian text written in 1889: “The New Utopia”. This presents a detailed design of what education should be like after the social revolution, establishing a new model for life, coexistence, and work. In addition to this ideal design, Mella includes brief pedagogical reflections and proposals that globally define a distinctly anarchist educational proposal, which is non-dogmatic, anti-authoritarian, coeducational, child-centered, and where rewards and punishments are rejected. These pedagogical proposals were presented nearly a decade before Francisco Ferrer founded the Modern School of Barcelona. Mella defended his proposals between 1910 and 1912 as an alternative to the Ferrerian model, which ultimately<br />was adopted by the National Confederation of Labor (CNT), setting aside Mella’s non-sectarian model.</span></p> Luis Miguel Lázaro Lorente Copyright (c) 2023 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-20 2024-01-20 19 15 48 10.5944/hme.19.2024.38242 The «Cursillos de Selección Profesional» public examinations in the Lleida Teacher Training School (1932): a historiographical review https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/36777 <p><span class="fontstyle0">The Provisional Government of the Republic promoted, among other educational initiatives, a restructuring of public primary education and<br />primary teacher education. Hence, on July 3, 1931, it promulgated a Decree that structured a new training format for primary school teachers and a new entry scheme into the civil servant teaching profession: the “cursillos de selección profesional”. This historical phenomenon has not been the subject of systematic research in History of Education. A few publications<br />mention these new public examinations in passing and those that focus specifically on them do so based on institutional sources and contemporary educational publications. There are only two works that have incorporated, albeit briefly, the viewpoint of the “cursillistas” – i.e., the primary school teachers sitting the new public examinations. This article seeks to put forward a brief historiographical review of this line of inquiry and present our Lleida Teacher Training School case study. Our study examines unpublished manuscripts (11 diaries written by about 190 “cursillistas” in February 1932) from the Lleida Teacher Training School Holding (1841-1950), which is held at the Archive and Document Management Service, University of Lleida (AUdL). Our current work-in-progress research includes a working hypothesis, which we also put forward in this article: the method of training and assessing the “cursillistas”, which is based on “autobiographical diaries” (the “cuartillas” mentioned in the 1931 Decree), is a pedagogical innovation that seems to be, at least in the form that took in Lleida, in accordance with the didactic-pedagogical perspective of Célestin Freinet.</span> </p> Meritxell Simon-Martin Gloria Jové Copyright (c) 2023 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-20 2024-01-20 19 49 78 10.5944/hme.19.2024.36777 Music and school, a late confluence in contemporary Spain: the LGE as a turning point https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/36768 <p><span class="fontstyle0">The teaching of music at school has expanded throughout the different educational legislative contexts that Spain has lived through in recent times. While the confluence of art and education constitutes a normalized and generalized practice in current school spaces, the historical deficit of schools without art continued until the last quarter of the last century. The General Law of Education (LGE) of 1970 established for the first time, at the curricular level, a space dedicated to artistic education, which included musical education, plastic expression and dramatization, with ambitious contents and methodological proposals as well as avant-garde references. This milestone was preceded by more than a century of sociopolitical and legislative vicissitudes that conditioned education in general and the role that music should assume in compulsory education in particular. Through this contribution we analyze the presence of music in the school through the different legislative contexts of the Spanish State, from the first references to the arts in the Law of Public Instruction of 1857 to the supposed consolidation of music in schools, at least legislatively, in the last third of the 20th century with the turning point represented by the LGE.</span> </p> Llorenç Gelabert Gual Xavier Motilla Salas Copyright (c) 2023 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-20 2024-01-20 19 79 105 10.5944/hme.19.2024.36768 Collections policies for research in the history of education: the case of Hisales (History of Literacy, Reading, Writing and Textbooks) – Brazil https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/29147 <p><span class="fontstyle0">This paper aims to present the constitution and policy of the collections maintained by the specialized archive of the memory and research center History of Literacy, Reading, Writing and Textbooks (Hisales). Hisales was </span>founded in 2006 at the College of Education (FaE) of the Federal University <span class="fontstyle0">of Pelotas (UFPel), and it is located in the city of Pelotas, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Currently, Hisales conducts research projects on the following themes: I) History of literacy and schooling; II) Reading and writing practices inside and outside school settings; III); Content, visuality and materiality in textbooks, educational printed materials and school materials. The main collections that make up the archive are: a) School exercise books; b) Teachers’ planning notebooks; c) School Textbooks for teaching reading and writing (Primers); d) School Textbooks produced in Rio Grande do Sul between the 1900s and the 1980s; e) Instructional materials; f) Personal and family writings. The center’s members, who are students from the undergraduate and graduate programs, as well as researchers from different academic institutions in the state of Rio Grande do Sul and in the entire country, use Hisales’ archives in their projects, as objects and/or research sources. The documents housed in the center are also used in extension, research and teaching projects, promoting actions with UFPel, partnerships with other institutions and approximations to the community in general. Thus, these collections help to safeguard the history and memory of education, especially concerning literacy.</span></p> Chris de Azevedo Ramil Eliane Peres Vania Grim Thies Copyright (c) 2023 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-20 2024-01-20 19 491 524 10.5944/hme.19.2024.29147 The bad education. The Spanish Transition in High School Textbooks https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/37837 <p><span class="fontstyle0">We present the results of an investigation on how the Spanish Transition is treated in History textbooks used in the 2nd year of the Baccalaureate level, during the LOMCE stage, between 2013 and 2022. We adopt the framework of research that focuses on the analysis of the content and the form of historical discourse in textbooks, within the scope of the purposes indicated by Jörn Rüsen: to determine with what delay academic debate reaches textbooks, to know what application is made of historical knowledge and, finally, to decipher the messages transmitted in the field of political education.<br />Our objective is to demonstrate that textbooks address the Transition with an institutional approach that enhances its consensual character and minimizes the dimension of social conflict and of social agents. Thus, the texts do not provide students with adequate knowledge of the complex genesis of<br />the current parliamentary regime; but neither do they convey the idea that a democracy is the result of the dialectic between the social actors involved.<br />Therefore, it is necessary to develop and facilitate critical tools, from the field of History, that will allow students to better engage as citizens of a participatory political system.</span> </p> Andrea Tappi Javier Tébar Hurtado Copyright (c) 2023 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-20 2024-01-20 19 109 142 10.5944/hme.19.2024.37837 Academic Recognition of Pharmacy Assistants in Spain: from the professional diploma to the official degree (1939-2015) https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/37730 <p><span class="fontstyle0">From the beginning of the 20th century, Spanish pharmacy assistants tried -unsuccessfully – to claim a title that would grant them social prestige and that would protect them as health professionals. Their claims were legitimized by the provisions of the Instrucción General de Sanidad Pública of 1904 and were inspired by the professional recognition that the auxiliary professions of Medicine had been receiving since the end of the 18th century. In this work we show the path followed by the pharmacy assistants in striving for the recognition of their title, as well as the results achieved, from the end of our Civil War until recent years. We start with the creation of the Cuerpo Auxiliar de Practicantes de Farmacia Militar and what this legislation meant for the professional recognition of the military pharmacy assistants. We continue with the claims of civilian pharmacy practitioners, once the Reglamentación Nacional de Trabajo en Farmacias (1948) was published, which recognized the legitimacy of the professional training for pharmacy workers, as well as their corresponding degree or diploma. And we end with the bulk of the work, in which we analyse the diploma promoted and managed by the Consejo General de Colegios Oficiales de Farmacéuticos during the 1960s and 1970s, and the inclusion of pharmacy assistant studies within the educational framework of the Formación Profesional.</span></p> Raúl Rodríguez Nozal Copyright (c) 2023 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-20 2024-01-20 19 143 175 10.5944/hme.19.2024.37730 Fraternal Catalan-Spanish coexistence at the University of Barcelona (1931-1936). The outstanding contribution of the intellectual group led by Pere Bosch-Gimpera https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/36187 <p><span class="fontstyle0">In the 1930s, the University of Barcelona acted as the main institutional platform for a powerful, profoundly reformist intellectual group that openly defended dialogue and coexistence between the Catalan cultural world and that of the rest of Spain, in addition to committing itself to the reform and modernization of the University. The main leader of this group was Pere Bosch-Gimpera. This group of Catalan professors managed to hold key government positions at the Barcelona university between 1931 and 1939. Despite the opposition of important political sectors, they defended and achieved a model of a bilingual (coexistence of Catalan and Spanish) and autonomous university (with extensive powers). These powers made it possible to hire the best Catalan-speaking specialists, as well as a significant number of illustrious non-Catalan Spanish professors, like never before. This made possible an exceptional strengthening, recognized by the protagonists themselves, of the links between the intellectuals of Barcelona and the rest of Spain. This University became the main cultural center that maintained, promoted and protected the Castilian-Catalan intellectual dialogue, in addition to becoming an institution open to the Spanish-speaking world.</span> </p> Jordi Pomés Vives Copyright (c) 2023 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-20 2024-01-20 19 177 213 10.5944/hme.19.2024.36187 The diffusion of physical culture in the Argentine ether. The 1947 radio auditions https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/30673 <p><em>Mass society had in the radio one of its most prominent instruments in terms of the possibility of democratizing content and knowledge. As part of a planetary phenomenon, the 1930s saw the beginning of a slow and determined state intervention in the radio’s use that would culminate between 1946 and 1955. It was during this period, in which Argentina was governed by Juan Domingo Perón, that an unprecedented growth took place in the number of radio stations and the technological devices that reached the majority of homes, introducing themselves into people’s daily lives. Physical culture occupied a prominent space within radio broadcasts. This was due to the fact that it was an inseparable part of the formation of the national spirit, an issue that unified countries of dissimilar ideology, especially after the Second World War. In the Argentine case, its diffusion was designed by the novel Peronist government as a social practice that was within reach of the entire population. From Peron’s perspective, its promotion would bring about a significant social and cultural improvement, allowing Argentina to become part of the group of developed countries. More specifically, this research will focus on the relationship between the public cultural policies of the state and the diffusion of physical culture in broad segments of the population through little-explored sources of the period such as radio broadcasts linked to the diffusion of sports in the year 1947.</em></p> Ivan Orbuch Copyright (c) 2023 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-20 2024-01-20 19 10.5944/hme.19.2024.30673 High school curricula and human capital in nineteenth and twentieth centuries Spain https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/37042 <p>During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, most European countries adopted a modern education system. Making comparisons across countries and throughout the centuries is difficult, however, as the number of years of schooling required to graduate and the curricula changed quite frequently. This paper defines a new unit of measure to evaluate curricular changes across time and place: hours per week by discipline needed to complete a secondary school degree. Using data from two different sources, we have estimated two Indexes in Spain which are then applied to enrolment rates. 1) A Legal High School based upon the curricular contents required to graduate and obtain the Bachiller degree according to Spanish educational laws; and 2) a Real or San Isidro Index, using annual calendar data from that Institute in Madrid to capture the actual implementation of those bills. Both refer to a previously defined Finnish 2010 Standard built on one of the best-known protocols. We assume that the closer they were to the Finnish Standard, the better the Spanish school curricula were. Both indexes have been used to estimate a quality-adjusted and long-term consistent measure –a constant as against a current value– of the number of high school students from which measures of the stock of human capital, such as average years of schooling, are usually estimated. The new series are an improvement upon previously available indicators of human capital stock in the long-term and might prove useful for future studies regarding its impact upon the modernization of the country.</p> Clara Eugenia Nuñez Copyright (c) 2023 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-20 2024-01-20 19 241 284 10.5944/hme.19.2024.37042 “Open the doors to other worlds”: The UNESCO Fellowship and Travel Grants abroad and educational modernization in Spain (1953-1975) https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/37691 <p>This research analyzes the development of the UNESCO fellowship program and Travel Grants in Spain and its relationship with the processes of educational modernization during the Franco dictatorship and the first years of democracy. The paper begins with a brief overview of the importance, from a theoretical point of view, of studying scholarship programs to understand the processes of transfer and configuration of educational discourses. From here, this research examines in depth the deployment of the program in Spain. The number of fellowships awarded by UNESCO is studied, as well as the topics or lines of research worked on and the countries that were visited by the beneficiaries. The last part of the article provides a summary approximation to the impact that the fellowships could have on the configuration of the field of Pedagogy during the Franco regime and the first years of the Transition. The article concludes that the fellowship and travel grants program underwent a process of change due to the importance that the Modernization Theory acquired within International Organizations with regard to the defining of educational policies during this period. On the other hand, it indicates the importance that the UNESCO program played as a significant factor in the processes of transfer and configuration of a new educational discourse or international narrative known as global educational governance or global architecture of education.</p> <p> </p> Mariano González-Delgado Tamar Groves Copyright (c) 2023 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-20 2024-01-20 19 285 323 10.5944/hme.19.2024.37691 Teaching and the nationalization campaign in Vale do Rio dos Sinos/RS https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/33659 <p>During the 1930s and 1940s, the valorization of Brazilian identity and culture at the expense of cultural manifestations of immigrant populations started to be discussed through the Nationalization Campaign. Education was one of the areas most influenced by this tendency, as it was thought that through teaching, the country could achieve an environment considered more Brazilian. From this perspective, our article aims to determine how the nationalization of education, developed during the government of Getúlio Vargas known as Estado Novo (1937-1945), influenced the daily lives of schools and students in the region of Vale do Rio dos Sinos, in Rio Grande do Sul. This was where the first German immigrants had settled to colonize the state beginning in 1824. Among the main changes identified, through the oral and documentary sources consulted, is the obligation to teach and use the national language in the school environment.</p> Fernanda Gälzer Magna Lima Magalhães Claudia Schemes Copyright (c) 2023 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-20 2024-01-20 19 326 353 10.5944/hme.19.2024.33659 Paola Carrara Lombroso and picture postcards as educational products: A way to educate young readers and citizens of tomorrow https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/35724 <p>In Italy picture postcards were disseminated during the Giolitti era and throughout the Great War, thus becoming <span style="text-decoration: line-through;">a</span> concrete medium with a pervasive potential. Postcards influenced mass culture by constructing a collective imagination, they promoted the education of adults as well as of young people. As postcards reflected the shape of cultural industry by reproducing large scale images, they stemmed from a complex productive process that became a language of its own, starting from the artistic originality of the image to the printed form, reaching a wider audience both in terms of visual education and as swift communicative tool. In 1909 in <em>Corriere dei Piccoli</em> (1908-1995), the most prominent magazine for children in Italy at the time, Paola Carrara Lombroso (1871-1954) began the project for <em>Bibliotechine per le scuole rurali</em> (Libraries for rural schools), destined to a success until halfway through the Twentieth century. The young readers of the magazine took part with initiative by colouring and selling postcards created by Italian artists. The sum raised was used to donate books to rural schools. This research wishes to analyse a sample of postcards illustrated by well-known artists such as Mussino, Golia, Altara, Bologna and Gugù in order to shed light on the way childhood was represented. Toys, books, expressions and clothes are visual evidence of the multiple perspectives that adults adopted to reach children through entertainment. The artist’s gaze met child readers as they became protagonists and at the same time owning that message by modelling their thought and imagination.</p> Sabrina Fava Copyright (c) 2023 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-20 2024-01-20 19 355 375 10.5944/hme.19.2024.35724 Antonio Valleriani and pedagogical narrativity in the educational circle of Teramo. Historical and theoretical balance https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/37218 <p>The aim of this article is to offer a historical presentation and a reading of the pedagogical and theoretical work carried out more than forty years ago by the Italian teacher and professor Antonio Valleriani and a group of collaborating teachers in the Abruzzo region of Italy. The common thread inspiring his proposal and his educational practice in the primary schools of the <em>V Circolo di Teramo</em>, of which he was director, was the hermeneutic-narrative philosophy. In contrast to the more theoretical orientations whose practice was subsequently attempted, the great value of this educational experience has to do with the fact that it arose, from its very beginning, from specific work in the classroom. This circularity between classroom practice and philosophical reflection resulted in a series of fundamental pillars that give body to the proposal, among which we could highlight the convenience of complementing the delimitations of the concept with the metaphorical informality of rhetoric; the possibilities of narrativity and aesthetic receptivity for elaborating learning processes and the constitution of identity; the consideration of childhood as a scenario where truth happens in each case; the open profile of the hermeneutic teacher inspired by the hybrid implications of identity; and the need to turn the body into the reader of the textuality of life.</p> Joaquín Esteban Ortega Copyright (c) 2023 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-20 2024-01-20 19 377 400 10.5944/hme.19.2024.37218 Puig Adam and the Instituto-Escuela of Madrid https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/34620 <p>The professor of mathematics at the San Isidro secondary school in Madrid, Pedro Puig Adam (1900-1960), was one of the leading figures in mathematics education in Spain; his proposals on this subject were valued nationally and internationally (he was a member of the International Commission for the Study and Improvement of Mathematics Education - CIEAEM and organised its 11th meeting in Madrid). He obtained his PhD in mathematics linked to the Laboratorio y Seminario Matemático, which depended on the Junta para la Ampliación de Estudios (JAE), as well as another secondary school, the Instituto-Escuela de Madrid. Our research studies the influences that Puig Adam received in his proposals on mathematics education, which were influenced by the ideology and practices of the Institución Libre de Enseñanza (ILE) and the Instituto Escuela. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to compare Puig Adam's proposals for the teaching of mathematics with those of the Instituto-Escuela, insofar as both general aspects of mathematics education and the training of mathematics teachers. For this purpose, we have used the decrees of creation of the Instituto-Escuela and the memoirs it produced, contrasting them with Puig Adam's publications on mathematics education between 1926 and 1960.</p> Dolores Carrillo-Gallego Josefa Dólera-Almaida Encarna Sánchez-Jiménez Copyright (c) 2023 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-20 2024-01-20 19 401 435 10.5944/hme.19.2024.34620 «¡Mujer! Quiero hablar contigo...» The construction of femininity through the fan magazines during the Early Francoism https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/36539 <p>Fan magazines were an instrument of women’s informal education during early Francoism. Their pages contributed to the spreading of the national-Catholic ideal of femininity, one based on domesticity and motherhood. Nevertheless, this discourse was full of contradictions, allowing it to be reappropriated by readers who could then confer on it a different sense from that intended by its authors. This process affected distinct areas, but was especially visible regarding one of the pillars of the regime: the family. Movie stars, particularly Hollywood stars, were used as role models to exemplify both positives and negatives attitudes. We can also see a message about the superiority of the Spanish tradition and its role against the penetration of cosmopolitan modernity. However, this attempt at the sentimental education of young women often clashed with the incongruity of the approach and with the fascination aroused by the figures who were criticised. Another major battleground in the indoctrination of women concerned sexual morality. But once again, by simultaneously employing the exhibition of the female body - in photographs of a pseudo-erotic nature for male visual pleasure -, the possibility arose that some women would transform that image conceived as an object of desire into a potentially active sexual subject.</p> Álvaro Álvarez Rodrigo Copyright (c) 2023 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-20 2024-01-20 19 437 469 10.5944/hme.19.2024.36539 List of Referees 2023 https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/39612 Copyright (c) 2024 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-20 2024-01-20 19 575 576 Interview with Federico Mayor Zaragoza, Minister of Education (1981-1982) and General Director of the UNESCO (1987-1999) https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/38872 <p><span class="fontstyle0">Since its founding in 1945 after the victory over fascism in World War II, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (known by its acronym in English: UNESCO) has been one of the most influential entities on international educational and cultural policies. In this interview we spoke with Federico Mayor Zaragoza, who held inportant positions in this organization between 1978 and 1999, including that of General Director, about its evolution and its influence on the policies of various countries, especially in relation to its main mission: erect «the bastions of peace» in the minds of human beings. Likewise, we talked about Federico Mayor Zaragoza’s previous experience in various positions in the educational administration in the 70s, especially about the relevance of various personalities in those years and the dynamics of the Transition that he experienced so closely <br /></span></p> <p> </p> Javier González-Moreno Copyright (c) 2023 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-20 2024-01-20 19 473 487 10.5944/hme.19.2024.38872 RAMÓN NAYA ORTEGA y LOURDES PRADES ARTIGAS. Hablamos diferentes idiomas, pero una misma lengua. multilingüismo y pedagogías en las brigadas internacionales https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/38072 <p>Review</p> Isabel Vilafranca Manguán Copyright (c) 2023 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-20 2024-01-20 19 527 534 10.5944/hme.19.2024.38072 HOWARD GARDNER. Una mente sintética. Memorias del creador de la teoría de las inteligencias múltiples https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/38342 <p>Review</p> Antonio Viñao Frago Copyright (c) 2023 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-20 2024-01-20 19 535 543 BEATRIZ COMELLA GUTIÉRREZ Y MERCEDES MONTERO DÍAZ (coords.) Sororidad. Redes de ayuda entre mujeres en los siglos XIX y XX https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/38357 <p>Review</p> Guillermo Arquero Copyright (c) 2023 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-20 2024-01-20 19 545 548 10.5944/hme.19.2024.38357 ÁLVARO RIBAGORDA Y LEONCIO LÓPEZ-OCÓN (eds.). La Universidad Central durante la Segunda República: las facultades de ciencias y su contexto internacional https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/38571 <p>Review</p> Fernando García Naharro Copyright (c) 2023 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-20 2024-01-20 19 549 553 10.5944/hme.19.2024.38571 BLANKA KUDLÁČOVÁ (ed.). Two sides of the same coin. Examples of free and unfree education in Slovakia during the period of socialism https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/39007 <p>Review</p> Antonio Fco. Canales Copyright (c) 2023 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-20 2024-01-20 19 555 559 10.5944/hme.19.2024.39007 RITA HOFSTETTER and SOLENN HUITRIC (DIRS.). Regards sur l’histoire de l’éducation, une perspective internationale https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/38198 <p>Review</p> Lajos Somogyvári Anikó Pálkuti Éva Sárköziné Márk Copyright (c) 2023 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-20 2024-01-20 19 561 566 10.5944/hme.19.2024.38198 GARY MCCULLOCH, ANTONIO F. CANALES and HSIAO-YUH KU. Brian Simon and the struggle for education. https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/39292 <p>Review</p> Mariano González Delgado Copyright (c) 2023 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2024-01-20 2024-01-20 19 567 574 10.5944/hme.19.2024.39292