Historia y Memoria de la Educación https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe <table border="0" width="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" align="left"> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" width="227"><img src="http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/management/settings/context//public/site/images/acanales/PORTADA_14_50.jpg" alt="" /> </td> <td valign="top" width="57"> <p><em> </em></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="530"> <p><em>Historia y Memoria de la Educación</em> is the journal of the Spanish Society of History of Education (<a href="http://sedhe.es/">SEDHE</a>) </p> <p><em>Historia y Memoria de la Educación</em> publishes research articles, bibliographic essays, reviews and other collaborations pertaining to the realm of the History of Education. <em> </em></p> <p>Manuscripts submitted to <em>Historia y Memoria de la Educación</em> for publication must meet the criteria regarding academic rigor, depth, originality, and specialization that are to be expected from a scientific-academic journal. They should also constitute a relevant, meaningful contribution to the field of the History of Education. </p> <p>All manuscripts published in the journal <em>Historia y Memoria de la Educación</em> will be previously peer reviewed by two external referees, in accordance with the double-blinded system.</p> <p><em>Historia y Memoria de la Educación</em> is published on a semi-annual basis by the Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED) </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> <img src="http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/management/settings/context//public/site/images/acanales/SCOPUS1.jpg" alt="" /> </p> <p> <img src="http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/management/settings/context//public/site/images/acanales/ESCI_702.jpg" alt="" width="147" height="146" /></p> <p><img src="http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/management/settings/context/undefined" /></p> <p> </p> </td> <td valign="top" width="321"> <p><em> </em></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" width="227"> <p> </p> </td> <td valign="top" width="57"> <p><em> </em></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="530"> <p><em> </em></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="321"> <p><em> </em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> UNED en-US Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2444-0043 <p>Authors who publish in <em>Historia y Memoria de la Educación</em> agree to the following terms:</p><ul><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ul> Leni Riefenstahl: it is not propaganda… I only showed what was happening https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/33461 <p>Review of</p> <p>Leni Riefenstahl, por Steve n Bach. Barcelona: Circe, 2008, ISBN: 978-84-7765-261-8<br />Memorias, por Leni Riefenstahl. Barcelona: Lumen, 2013. ISBN: 978-84-2642-149-4<br />Conversaciones con Leni Riefenstahl. Almería: Confluencias Editorial, 2016, ISBN: 978-84-945298-7-0<br />Leni Riefenstahl, por Manuel García Roig. Madrid: Cátedra, 2017, ISBN: 978-84-376-3628-3</p> Raquel Cercós Raichs Conrad Vilanou Torrano Copyright (c) 2022 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 16 673 707 10.5944/hme.16.2022.33461 On documentaries, books and pedagogies. About Film and Reform. John Grierson and the documentary film movement https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/33344 <p>Review of the book</p> <p>Ian Aitken. <em>Film and Reform. John Grierson and the documentary film movement.</em> London-New York: Routledge, 2014 [1990],</p> EULÀLIA COLLELLDEMONT PUJADAS Copyright (c) 2022 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 16 709 716 10.5944/hme.16.2022.33344 Totalitarismos europeos, propaganda y educación. Una historia visual desde los No-Do https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/33582 <p>Review of the book </p> <p>Eulàlia Collelldemont and Conrad Vilanou (coords.). <em>Totalitarismos europeos, propaganda y educación. Una historia visual desde los No-Do</em>. Madrid: Trea, 2020</p> Ramiro León de Pedro Copyright (c) 2022 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 16 717 723 10.5944/hme.16.2022.33582 Humanizing childhood in early twentieth century Spain https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/33555 <p>Review of the book</p> <p>ANNA KATHRYN KENDRICK, <em>Humanizing childhood in early twentieth century Spain. </em>Cambridge: Legenda, 2020</p> Álvaro Ribagorda Copyright (c) 2022 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 16 725 730 10.5944/hme.16.2022.33555 El espíritu o la mecánica. La enseñanza mutua y la culturalidad del orden de la enseñanza (Prusia, Dinamarca/Schleswig-Holstein, España, 1800-1870) https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/33409 <p>Review of the book</p> <p>MARCELO CARUSO. <em>El</em><em> espíritu o la mecánica. La enseñanza mutua y la culturalidad del orden de la enseñanza (Prusia, Dinamarca/Schleswig-Holstein, España, 1800-1870). </em>Berlín: Peter Lang, 2021</p> Antonio Viñao Frago Copyright (c) 2022 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 16 731 743 10.5944/hme.16.2022.33409 Immagini dei nostri maestri. Memorie di scuola nel cinema e nella televisione dell’Italia repubblicana. https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/31307 <p>Review of the book</p> <p>PAOLO ALFIERI (a cura di). <em>Immagini dei nostri maestri. Memorie di scuola nel </em><em>cinema e nella televisione dell’Italia repubblicana.</em> Roma: Armando, 2019.</p> Evelina Scaglia Copyright (c) 2022 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 16 745 750 10.5944/hme.16.2022.31307 Jesús Yoldi Bereau. universitario al servicio del bien común https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/32462 <p>Review of the book</p> <p>Pedro Luis Mateo Alarcón, Carmen Morente Muñoz y Roque Hidalgo Álvarez <em>Jesús Yoldi Bereau. universitario al servicio del bien común. </em>Granada. Editorial Universidad de Granada, 2021</p> MANUEL CASTILLO Copyright (c) 2022 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 16 751 755 10.5944/hme.16.2022.32462 A school for young ladies and a school for poor nursery schoolchildren. School architecture as a note on religious school diversity in provinces at the beginning of the 20th century https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/29822 <p>In this paper we examine the educational work carried out in the city of Zamora from the beginning of the 20th century by the Company of the Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul in two schools run by the Order. They were opened precisely 40 years after the religious society’s arrival in the capital in 1860, in response to as request by the Provincial Charity Board to run the Nuestra Señora del Tránsito hospice. Four decades later, their initial welfare work took on an explicitly educational character with the management of two schools. Managed by the same religious institution, the school of the Patronato de San Vicente de Paúl started up in 1904, continuing the work of a school located in a city slum and poorly supported by the City Council with municipal funds after the elderly teacher who attended it ceased her work. Only a year earlier, in 1903, the Company also opened the Colegio Medalla Milagrosa, moved by the impulse of the provincial deputies, who wanted their daughters to receive an education at a level comparable to that given by the nuns to orphan girls in their orphanage. In this research, we focus on the analysis of their respective school architecture as an example of the diversity of the educational attention of the Company in Zamora.</p> Rafael Ángel García-Lozano Copyright (c) 2022 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 16 305 338 10.5944/hme.16.2022.29822 Secondary Education in Extremadura through its students. The Provincial Historical Institutes of Cáceres and Badajoz (1900-1936) https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/27586 <p>The first third of the 20th century was a period of great social and cultural transformations. But how did these changes affect secondary education in Extremadura? The objective of this article is to analyze the development and evolution of secondary education (official, collegiate and free) in Extremadura in the years between 1900 and 1936 through the tracing of students enrolled in the historical institutes of Caceres and Badajoz. To do so, in this work we have not only resorted to quantitative analysis through tables and graphs that show data on the enrolled population, including their origin, types of education, differences by sex, etc., but we have focused on detecting the causes that influenced the evolution, or lack thereof, of this educational level. We conclude that, although the process of democratization of this type of education began thanks to educational policies enacted during the first third of the 20th century, especially during the Second Republic - favored by the implantation of new schools as well as to the fact that a degree was required to become a teacher – the overall impact was limited in Extremadura. This owes to a combination of a high rate of illiteracy in the area, a scattered population and low economic development, among other causes</p> Cristina Redondo Castro Isabel Grana Gil Copyright (c) 2022 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 16 339 378 10.5944/hme.16.2022.27586 The First World War in Spanish and British Textbooks: a Comparative Study of Skills, Historiographical Focus and the Sequencing of Activities https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/30004 <p>This study compares a sample of Spanish and British textbooks to analyse how they present the topic of the First World War, a conflict that has distinct meanings in the national memory of both countries. With this aim, activities from the chosen textbooks are quantitively assessed with reference to two main variables: historiographical focus and the cognitive level required to complete them. To this we add another objective: to associate these variables with the position of different activities within the didactic sequence embedded in each textbook. The results confirm that both Spanish and British textbooks dedicate a large part of their activities to political-institutional history and military events. However, British books also incorporate a strong element of the history of everyday life, women’s history and “history from below”. In general, activities in British textbooks require a higher cognitive level than Spanish ones. Finally, introduction, extension and specific skills-based activities are more likely to require a high cognitive level than those found in the main body of a given teaching unit.</p> <p> </p> Philip Duncan Webb Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 16 379 424 10.5944/hme.16.2022.30004 The mathematics problem section of La Escuela bulletin (1913-1916) https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/30828 <p>The bulletin L<em>a Escuela. Boletín de la Asociación Provincial del Magisterio de primera enseñanza </em>[The School: Bulletin of the Provincial Association of Primary Education] is one of the many professional pedagogical publications that appeared in Spain between the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Published in Castellón, it was mostly aimed at primary education teachers and it addressed a wide variety of education- related topics. In this work, we carry out a detailed analysis of the mathematics problem section that appeared in the bulletin from 1913 through 1916. Throughout the issues studied, we have identified four different periods in the section, featuring different approaches: problems to be implemented in the classroom or problems meant to engage the participation of the readers. Despite the restrictions involved in publishing graphics and figures in the bulletin, most of the problems are related to geometry, especially to the calculation of areas, volumes and lengths of different geometric figures, which for the most part require the use of algebraic techniques. Furthermore, the algebra used in many of the published solutions exceeds the contents that were studied at Normal Schools (Teacher Training Centers) of that time. The results of our study provide interesting information about the mathematical training of Spanish teachers in a specific historical and geographical context (Spanish provinces during the first quarter of the 20th century) and about the possible impact that this type of section could have had on the educational practice of readers</p> José María Muñoz Escolano Antonio Miguel Oller Marcén María Santágueda Villanueva Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 16 425 458 10.5944/hme.16.2022.30828 The political purge of Victoriano Taibo https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/31265 <p>This study deals with the political purge of Victoriano Taibo García (1885-1966), a poet and narrator in the Galician tongue and one of the signatories of the « Manifesto Nacionalista» during the first assembly of As Irmandades da Fala (IF) in 1918. Our work is based on the dossier kept in the Archivo General de la Administración (AGA), in Alcalá de Henares; on his collection of letters, that is part of his personal archive, kept in the Instituto de Estudos Miñoráns (IEM); on the documentation regarding municipal plenary sessions in the archive of Gondomar (AMG); and on other detailed sources that are cited.</p> <p>Taibo García was a cultural activist and teacher in several schools in Galicia. Shortly before the proclamation of the II Republic, as an already renowned poet, he was appointed to the school of Morgadáns, a civil parish of Gondomar (Pontevedra), , where he taught for almost two decades and forged a strong bond to the area.</p> <p>He was never affiliated with the Partido Galeguista (PG), despite his being committment to Galicianism. After the military uprising, he was not punished immediately, but, in the purge that followed, was sanctioned with banishment to Villalar de los Comuneros (Valladolid), from January of 1938 to the same month of 1942.</p> <p>In 1948 he was accepted into the Real Academia Galega (RAG) and gave a speech on Rosalía de Castro. He died in 1966.</p> Carlos Méixome Copyright (c) 2022 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 16 459 489 10.5944/hme.16.2022.31265 The Ward Method of music instruction and its reception in Spain. Between the Social Question and Motu Proprio (Ca. 1873-1965) https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/31505 <p>This article reflects on the meaning and scope of the Ward teaching method, which was conceived at the time in a general way for developing musical literacy in schoolchildren as well as providing a basic musical learning of Gregorian Chant. We also delve into the figure of its creator, the American pedagogue Justine Bayard Cutting Ward (1879-1975), paying special attention to the conjuncture and contextualization of the time in which her musical system developed. Subsequently, the issue of the reception of the Ward method in Spain is addressed, framed by the crisis affecting the Church in the nineteenth century, the Social Question addressed by Pope Leo XIII and the subsequent reform of Sacred Music championed by Pius X and ratified until the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965). This method of musical teaching also takes as a reference the revitalization and normalization of the Gregorian chant from Solesmes. The review that is proposed here through the analysis of the origin of the Ward method as well as the combination of factors and circumstances that led to it may contribute to updating some of its premises in the pedagogical-musical field, whose basic principles are still a valid influence on some of the main methods employed in music education.</p> Jorge Ramón Salinas Carmen M. Zavala Arnal Copyright (c) 2022 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 16 491 532 10.5944/hme.16.2022.31505 Comfort Dolls: Notes for the History of Fabric Toys in Spain https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/32605 <p>The Aesthetic and psychoeducational context of the modern era led to the trend of toys made of fabric, which reached Spain during World War I. From then until the end of the century, these transitional objects became an efficient visual support for transmitting social imaginaries. With the objective of diversifying the fields of history of education, from school culture to the culture of childhood in all of its plurality, this article constitutes the first approximation to the history of fabric toys in Spain.</p> <p> </p> Pere Capellà Simó Copyright (c) 2022 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 16 533 561 10.5944/hme.16.2022.32605 The ‘Memories’ of Terrorism: The Victims of Political Violence and the Secondary School in the Basque Country (2005-2021) https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/32194 <p>Beginning in October 2011, Basque and Spanish institutions have immersed themselves in the analysis of the recent past of the Basque Country, emphasizing the history and memory of terrorism. The study of this traumatic episode has been undertaken by entities such as the Memorial Center for the Victims of Terrorism and Gogora: Institute for Memory, Coexistence and Human Rights. The existence of two memorial organizations with divergent narratives has shown that the Basque society remains polarized, and that it continues to (un-)consciously turn the page of terrorism without even having read it. This disparity of narratives is having its effect on Education. This article focuses on the initiatives implemented by the Basque Government to bring the history of terrorism to the curriculum of the Secondary School in the Basque Country, highlighting the educational programs deployed between 2005 and 2021 to try to delegitimize it. The objective is to show the confrontation of narratives, the reason for the discrepancies and the impact that such circumstances have on how this episode in the history of political violence in Spain is to be transmitted and told.</p> David Mota Zurdo Copyright (c) 2022 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 16 563 605 10.5944/hme.16.2022.32194 The representation of education in documentaries produced by European totalitarism https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/33830 <p>Presentation</p> Conrad Vilanou Torrano Núria Padrós Tuneu Raquel Cercós i Raichs Copyright (c) 2022 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 16 11 76 10.5944/hme.16.2022.33830 The educational memory of documentaries as a confrontation to the totalitarianism past https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/32015 <p>As the result of two research projects about documentaries and newsreels produced in Spain between 1914-1939 and 1939-1970, we discovered different silences and rumours which had an impact un the memory and the history of education. We know that those silences and rumours were applied systematically as part of a national policy, affecting mainly the vulnerable population and stymieing any attempt at changing the situation. It is important that we understand why those silences and rumours persist nowadays and how the history and memory of education confront them. The silences, like the manipulations, make up a part of our past, yet they still have effects today. And this is true not only with Francoism; in different totalitarian systems, as well as during violent historical episodes, there has been a habit of imposing silence. The same thing has occurred withnewsreels and documentaries. Different responses have attempted to address this problem and its effect on the recuperation of educational memories, and it ultimately depends on political, cultural and social contexts. In researching and disseminating one’s own past, the sensation of uneasiness is inherent to the process. The educational memory assumes this apprehension when it is developed as complex history which explains the lived educational experiences that are being related. In this article, we explore some of the premises and the potential of fragile memories and complex stories forming part of an intentional research program around audiovisual sources produced as propaganda in a totalitarian political framework. The different lines of research pursued in the aforementioned projects, but not exclusive to them, reinforced the need to advance in those methodologies that could bring together the different paths connecting the common elements and allowing for the possibility of narrating the silence with the perspective of a social history linked to justice and democracy.</p> EULÀLIA COLLELLDEMONT PUJADAS Núria Padrós-Tuneu Ian Grosvenor Copyright (c) 2022 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 16 77 103 10.5944/hme.16.2022.32015 «The cinema spectator is a passive being»: António Ferro, education through cinema, censorship and propaganda in Portugal, 1917-1949 https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/32075 <p>This article seeks to understand the use of cinema as an educational device during the Estado Novo regime, particularly with regard to newsreels. Weundertake a genealogical approach to our research, seeking to reconstitute the provenance of the newsreels within the framework of António Ferro's <em>Politics of the Spirit</em>. To this end, the article focuses on two documentary series: the legislation produced on cinema, in which the authorities recognize its educational character; and the work of António Ferro himself, writer and publicist responsible for the National Propaganda Secretariat, created in 1933 and made National Information Secretariat in 1944.</p> Ana Luísa Fernandes Paz Jorge Ramos do Ó Copyright (c) 2022 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-25 2022-06-25 16 105 139 10.5944/hme.16.2022.32075 Der Marsch zum Führer: documentary films and newsreels in the indoctrination of youth in Nazi Germany https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/31842 <p>Documentaries and educational newsreels have only begun to constitute an area of ​​research in Spain in recent years. From this perspective, our article aims to contribute to the analysis of documentaries as well as the mechanisms used by the Nazi regime for the promotion of certain educational ideals, both formal and non-formal, with the clear objective of indoctrinating the country’s youth. In addition to highlighting the propagandistic instrumentation of cinematography as a fundamental part of education in the interior of the country and beyond its borders, we analyze the role of the Hitlerjugend and Bund Deutscher Mädel in the mechanisms used for indoctrination. To substantiate this discourse, we have carried out a study based on primary sources, both film and text. These include, on the one hand, the documentary Der Marsch zum Führer, as well as the Junges Europa and NO-DO news programs. On the other hand, we examine the network of instruments that controlled the formation of youth and that relied on books and journals with speeches that reflected the visual materials worked on: works such as Marschtritt Deustschland and the Junges Europa journal. The results feature characteristics, in the form of both visual symbols and textual content, that coincide with the typical educational elements of European totalitarianism.</p> Antonio Almeida Aguiar Copyright (c) 2022 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 16 141 172 10.5944/hme.16.2022.31842 The Falangist project of a «sports state». From totalitarian ideology to Olympism through the images of NO-DO (1943-1961) https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/32082 <p>This article analyzes the ideological origins of Francoism from the perspective of a “sports state”, in the sense that physical culture, not only physical education but also sport, was seen as a way of preparing youth for the post-war peacetime after the Civil War (1936-1939). Starting from a conception of life as a sort of militia, we explore the ideological assumptions and legal provisions that laid the foundations of this “sports state”, which was dependent on the Falange. Beginning in 1943 this concept found a powerful resonance box in the images of NO-DO, coinciding with the celebration of the first National Congress of Physical Education (October 1943) that designed an action program that was not legally materialized until 1961 with the approval of the Physical Education Law. Although initially this sports nationalism, inspired by classical models (Spartan, French revolutionary), based itself on the example of European totalitarianism - especially in the organization of the Berlin Olympics (1936) by the Nazis - with the passing of time this ideological element ceded prominence to an ideology inspired by the sports pedagogy of Pierre de Coubertin. In this same direction, Olympic participation, the organization of the II Mediterranean Games (Barcelona, 1955) and the Olympic Games in Rome (1960), all with the approval of the Catholic Church, led to the consolidation of a “sports state”, which, always under the control of the Falange, assumed the values of Olympism</p> Raquel Cercos Raichs Jordi Garcia Farrero Conrad Vilanou Torrano Copyright (c) 2022 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 16 173 231 10.5944/hme.16.2022.32082 For a New and Bright Future: Propaganda in Hungarian Newsreels Between 1945 and 1954 https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/32301 <p>This study firstly emphasize the importance and relevance of analysing newsreels from a history of education aspect, which is a blind spot in the Hungarian research. The official Leninist ideology deeply influenced the genre, used as a channel of overall propaganda, during and after the communist takeover, between 1945 and 1954. Production and broadcasting depended on the political goals and turns of the Communist Party, combined simple messages with easily understandable narrative forms, to support campaigns, spread intended knowledge and so on. The footages has now digitized and open to access for everyone (<a href="https://filmhiradokonline">https://filmhiradokonline</a>.hu/): using the webpage, through a three-step data collecting and selection process, a database made, with 205 items to analyse. Three archetypes, basic storytelling forms are detected, I called them metaphorically <em>One from the many, Occupying space </em>and <em>Learning society. </em>The development and progression of the country after WW2 always represented in individual life-stories and personal backgrounds to get close these stories to the audience, trying to make Soviets and communists more popular. At the same time, more and more spaces are occupied by the new power, both physically and symbolically, for example the former castles became schools, training sites, etc., which signed the expropriation the past, too. Definition and scope of education extended in the discourses, because every member of the society would learn repeatedly the language of the new establishment. Propaganda and persuasion was overall in this process, one could not avoid interacting and reflecting somehow to this.</p> Lajos Somogyvári Copyright (c) 2022 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 16 233 266 10.5944/hme.16.2022.32301 The concept of “woman” in the “tardofranquismo” (1960-1975): the NO-DO as an instrument for the control of female emancipation https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/31837 <p>The Plan de Estabilización y Liberalización Económica (1959) is considered the milestone that marks the beginning of a new stage of the Franco Regime called «technocratic developmentalism» (desarrollismo tecnocrático). Unique circumstances allowed a strong propulsion toward women´s emancipation, thanks to the greater inclusion of women in the labor force, a phenomenon that had been significantly hampered by the Franco dictatorship previously. In addition to other cultural considerations, these economic changes questioned the ideal of the «angel of the home» that Francoism had promoted for women. Consequently, the dictatorial regime employed its most effective propaganda, the newsreel NO-DO (Noticiarios y Documentales, News Programs and Documentaries), to safeguard this model. In this study we aim to discover the discursive strategies used by the NO-DO to discredit any women´s expectations that did not align with the official female stereotype of the Francoist Regime in the «technocratic developmentalism» (1960-1975). We have focused on reports that showed news linked to primary, secondary, and university education, as well as vocational training. The methodology employed in this research is that of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), applied to verbal and non-verbal discourse, joined to techniques of audiovisual analysis. Our results reveal that female models differing from traditional ones are discredited by means such as teasing, irony and, in general, derogatory language. Moreover, the presence of women in traditionally masculine spaces is omitted. At the same time, the «National-Catholic» archetype about women continues to be reinforced by verbal discourse and images. This period also saw a greater visualization of women in classrooms.</p> Virginia Guichot Reina Copyright (c) 2022 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 16 267 301 10.5944/hme.16.2022.31837 Interview with the General Secretaries of the Students Union Juan Ignacio Ramos (1987-1991) and Bárbara Areal (1994-1998) https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/33442 <p>This 2021-2022 academic year marks the 35th anniversary of the student strike of the 1986-1987 academic year, which constitutes the largest student conflict in the history of Spain. It marked the beginning of a three-year period of protests against the policies of the PSOE government, which had failed to satisfy the workers’ expectations of reform. These protests went in crescendo with the teachers’ strike of the 1987-1988 academic year, culminating in the historic general strike of December 14<sup>,</sup> 1988. The student strike of 1986-1987 stood out for its massive participation and for the important effects it achieved in educational policy, especially in the extension of secondary education. The fundamental organization of these protests was the responsibility of the Student Union. We chat here about these events and about the subsequent trajectory of the Student Union with Juan Ignacio Ramos, its general secretary at the time, and with Bárbara Areal, a militant in that strike who later became general secretary.</p> Javier González-Moreno Copyright (c) 2022 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 16 609 633 10.5944/hme.16.2022.33442 Memory, history and education around the memory’s grey areas concerning the Spanish Civil War and Francoism https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/31517 <p>From certain fragments of the individual memory and the post-memory (both received and inherited) of the author regarding the Spanish Civil War, Francoism and the democratic transition, the objective of this article is twofold. On the one hand, it highlights the need for memory and history to come together, beyond their differences, in the search of the truth. On the other, it points to the need for the dissection of the intricate folds of memory (its fluctuations, its forgetfulness, its silences, its grey areas) to contribute, through the teaching of history, to forming in the students a habit of complex thinking and to train them in the productive use of memory.</p> Emilio Castillejo Cambra Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 16 637 669 10.5944/hme.16.2022.31517