https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/issue/feed Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-12-20T11:38:42+00:00 Antonio Fco. Canales Serrano antcanal@ucm.es Open Journal Systems <table border="0" width="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" align="left"> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" width="227"><img src="http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/management/settings/context//public/site/images/acanales/PORTADA_14_50.jpg" alt="" /> </td> <td valign="top" width="57"> <p><em> </em></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="530"> <p><em>Historia y Memoria de la Educación</em> is the journal of the Spanish Society of History of Education (<a href="http://sedhe.es/">SEDHE</a>) </p> <p><em>Historia y Memoria de la Educación</em> publishes research articles, bibliographic essays, reviews and other collaborations pertaining to the realm of the History of Education. <em> </em></p> <p>Manuscripts submitted to <em>Historia y Memoria de la Educación</em> for publication must meet the criteria regarding academic rigor, depth, originality, and specialization that are to be expected from a scientific-academic journal. They should also constitute a relevant, meaningful contribution to the field of the History of Education. </p> <p>All manuscripts published in the journal <em>Historia y Memoria de la Educación</em> will be previously peer reviewed by two external referees, in accordance with the double-blinded system.</p> <p><em>Historia y Memoria de la Educación</em> is published on a semi-annual basis by the Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED) </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> <img src="http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/management/settings/context//public/site/images/acanales/SCOPUS1.jpg" alt="" /> </p> <p> <img src="http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/management/settings/context//public/site/images/acanales/ESCI_702.jpg" alt="" width="147" height="146" /></p> <p><img src="http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/management/settings/context/undefined" /></p> <p> </p> </td> <td valign="top" width="321"> <p><em> </em></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" width="227"> <p> </p> </td> <td valign="top" width="57"> <p><em> </em></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="530"> <p><em> </em></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="321"> <p><em> </em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/32465 Referees 2021 2021-12-18T13:13:15+00:00 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/27851 Technical education and educational reform during the “Argentine Revolution” (1966-1973) 2021-08-02T16:56:26+00:00 Gabriela Andrea D'Ascanio gabidascanio@hotmail.com <p>Argentina, the developmentalist and authoritarian governments of the “Argentine Revolution”, which were in power during the 1966-1973 pe­riod, conceived of education as a profitable investment, something which could provide the human resources necessary for economic development, from different perspectives: spiritual, comprehensive, and pragmatic. In this work we examine the transformations, continuities and scope of those no­tions as expressed in the discourses and policies linked to technical educa­tion. We also describe the leading ideas advocated by governors and officials in relation to this modality of teaching along with the role these ideas played in the modernization process they we trying to promote. Specifically, we reconstruct the controversial link between the Education Reform started in the late 1960s and the National Council for Technical Education (Consejo Nacional de Educación Técnica - CONET), a government body pertaining to the technical national education subsystem. Finally, we focus on said Board, institutional changes, educational offer, and the restrictions affecting the technical education expansion at the secondary level, youth and adults training and the instructors’ formation. The methodological approach used is that of the Political and Institutional History and the sources are of dif­ferent origins: official, journalistic, and legislative.</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/27521 Women’s access to higher education through the Church’s teacher training colleges. The case of the Escuni Teacher Training School between 1970 and 1983 2021-03-29T07:20:57+00:00 Félix Asenjo Gómez fasenjo@escuni.es <p>The Church has played a prominent role in the field of teacher training in Spain, especially since the 1945 Primary Education Act, which allowed the Church to open and organize its own teacher training colleges. The analysis of the statistical data during the decade of the seventies of one of these schools, the current Centro de Estudios de Magisterio Escuni, in Madrid, shows us the characteristics of this type of school, of its student body and of the fundamental presence of women in them. This meant the increasing incorporation of women into society, something that also happened with their entry into the state public training schools, with which the private schools of the Church are compared. We observe that these studies have provided a fundamental access to the world of culture and higher education for women, an aspect that we see reflected not only in state schools but also in those of the Church.</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/32106 The fragile boundary between ‘education’ and ‘educationalisation’: some personal reflections on the often exaggerated educational aspirations of museums 2021-11-06T10:55:23+00:00 Marc Depaepe marc.depaepe@kuleuven-kulak.be <p>Although the origins of school museums and museums of children and childhood do not coincide directly, they nevertheless have moved into the same direction during the past decades. Especially because chil­dren are an important part of the visitors, a lot is invested by these mu­seums in educational support and activities. Pedagogical arguments form the backbone of their mission statements. A bit against the tide of this trend, I want to pay attention here to the often exaggerated educa­tional aspirations. To my mind the boundary between “education” and “educationalisation” is a fragile one and can be easily exceeded if the cultural-historical context of the museum content is ignored too much. Educating young people does not necessarily mean taking them by the hand and leading them through well-developed work packages, but is related to the more complex process of <em>Bildung </em>– the formation of a per­son, which usually starts, in view of attitudes and behaviour, by reflec­tion about self-identity as well as societal values and norms. In my opin­ion the encounter with well-chosen artefacts of former pedagogical mentalities and realities in museums of education, children and child­hood, can be helpful in this respect. Therefore, my plea for more cul­ture-historical contemplation and less educational strategy in represent­ing education, children and childhood is not to be understood as phasing efforts in this sector. On the contrary, the shift of emphasis from the neoliberal focus on efficiency, management, and social relevance (also in terms of a possible instrumentalization) of educational history towards more scientific, cultural-historical underpinning will need continuous support.</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/28019 A little plaster, a lot of design, all abnegation: the instruction of crafts for the 19th century student workers 2021-05-19T18:16:10+00:00 António Henriques antenriques@gmail.com <p>The thoughts, writings, and actions of the most informed Portuguese ex­pert on artistic education of the 19th century and connoisseur of Portugal’s artistic treasures, the historian and pedagogue Joaquim de Vasconcelos (1849- 1936), guide us in our inquiry into the tenets of the struggle for the establish­ment of technical elementary schools and industrial art schools based on the discipline of drawing. This struggle for the dignification of decorative arts also promoted the establishment of art-industrial museums.</p> <p>This movement, initially assumed by England through the South Kensing­ton Museum, and which had ramifications in France, Germany, and Aus­tria, outlined the need to provide work for working class children and youth in the second half of the 19th century and to provide them with autonomy, dignity, and an escape from misery. What began as a revolution in the teach­ing of drawing would have major consequences for the appreciation of cul­tural heritage and its sponsorship by the European aristocracy and bour­geoisie, as well as in the will to return it to the masses, as an effect of the power of the ruling classes.</p> <p>The article discusses how this revolution, and the promotion of homemade arts, implied: i) an ideation of a nationalist heritage, supported by an inter­national movement of countries; ii) a validation of the fine arts by the Eu­ropean aristocracies, to serve as inspiration for craftwork; iii) the beginning of the awareness of cultural heritage as a phenomenon of the popular mass­es; iv) the alleged fall of the authenticity value of the artistic pieces.</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/27100 The sexual education teaching guides, the religious contest, and the regulation of sexual normality in Costa Rica, 1985-1998 2021-05-19T17:47:37+00:00 José Daniel Jiménez Bolaños josezero6@gmail.com <p>The objective of this article is to analyze in historical perspective and through journalistic sources, the development of the writing, discussion, and implementation of the sexual education teaching guides in Costa Rica since 1985. From their very inception they were contested by the country’s main religious authorities. This religious challenge gave rise to an outburst of public opinion, with voices for and against the clergy’s intervention in the development of the teaching guides. The tug of war between state efforts and ecclesiastical refusal led to a reformulation of the guidelines, with changes in their content that conferred to them an approach that was less secular and closer to Christian dogmas. This process of polarization evidenced the two different projects that coexisted in the country in the construction and regulation of sexual normality in the classroom, the point of contention being the predominance otherwise of the religious axes. The guides had a limited effect at the educational level..</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/27661 The teaching of the Asturian language according to Conceyu Bable. Democracy, autonomy, identity, and linguistic normalization in the Asturias of Transition (1974-1983) 2021-02-12T16:49:20+00:00 Marcos Rodríguez Álvarez rodriguezamarcos@uniovi.es <p>The appearance of Conceyu Bable in 1974, a political-cultural collective of linguistic vindication, marks the beginning of the modern movement for the recovery of the Asturian language. The group broke with the conserva­tionist approach from which the promotion of the Asturian language had been addressed until then, claiming the language as an absolute and unitary code and promoting its social and political normalization. From this per­spective the schooling of the language emerged as a priority objective of its normalization. This article tries to unravel the conceptual framework that supported the educational discourse of this movement, as well as the key ideas for the insertion of the Asturian language in the school system that had to adjust to it. School demand revolved around political-cultural as well as educational considerations. Straddling late Francoism and the Transi­tion, the teaching of the language was aired by Conceyu Bable as a demo­cratic, progressive, and autonomous demand. On the other hand, analyzing Asturian reality from the perspective of a sociolinguistic scenario of idio­matic conflict, led the group to recognize the need to extract the native lan­guage from its marginalized condition and the rejection in schools that it had historically faced. Conceyu Bable proposed the transformation of the school as a sensitive and respectful space for the expression of the Asturian language and as an instrument capable of transmitting its literacy and knowledge from a scientific approach.</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/28878 History and the configuration of the educational cartographic heritage of the Alfonso VIII Secondary School of Cuenca 2021-09-03T08:47:04+00:00 Óscar Serrano Gil oscar.serranogil@gmail.com Jesús López Requena Requena jlrmistico@gmail.com <p>The teaching of geography has required the use of maps as an important tool in learning how to represent the Earth. Educational institutions have configured a scarcely known but interesting and rich cartographic heritage over time. This work shows the origin of the collection, the methodology, and the presentation of the cartographic resources contained in the map library of the Alfonso VIII Secondary Education Institute of Cuenca. This map collection was created at the end of the 19th century. It brings together more than two hundred reproductions from different places (France, Italy, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Argentina). Wall maps used widely in teaching-learning pro­cesses prevail. Although maps are used much less today, their reevaluation can contribute the historical legacy based on values of heritage education.</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/32053 History of Education, History of Health and Disease. Parallel paths? For an inter/multidisciplinary history 2021-10-31T11:21:07+00:00 Enrique Perdiguero-Gil quique@umh.es Mercedes del Cura Gonz´ález Mercedes.DelCura@uclm.es <p>Introduction to the special Issue Education and Health: <em>Intersections, Disagreements and Synergies in the Second Half of the tweentieth Century</em></p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/30485 Which Degree for which Profession of Medicine in Spain? The Failure of the Introduction of Social Health Sciences in the Medical Education of the First Franco Regime (1938-1959) 2021-09-14T11:10:31+00:00 Josep Barceló-Prats josep.barcelo@urv.cat Josep M. Comelles josepmaria.comelles@urv.cat <p>Beginning at the end of the 18th century, the emergence of hospital medicine and, half a century later, the development of experimental medicine and health statistics, transformed the way medicine was taught. This new training model prioritized the “clinical view”, to the detriment of the view on the social environment where professional practice was undertaken. Despite this subordination, on an international scale, social medicine and other social and health sciences continued to be important subjects in the medical curriculum. However, in Spain the presence of social and health sciences was scant. In this article, focused mainly on the early Franco regime, we intend to clarify the roots and reasons for this marginalization, such as the legal and administrative “regulations” of the Spanish university; academic and corporate resistance to incorporating interdisciplinary approaches; and a political and ideological context that delayed, until the Spanish Transition, the evolution of Spanish health towards the concept of “public health”. To do this, we have divided the article into two parts. The first follows the evolution of medical training from the middle of the 19th century to 1938, while the second describes and analyses the reforms of medical curricula made between 1938 and 1959.</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/30597 From childcare courses to maternal education: the role of midwifes in birth preparation in Spain throughout the 20th century 2021-07-21T12:38:01+00:00 Dolores Ruiz Berdún lola.ruizberdun@uah.es <p>One of the factors that has historically been considered most important in combating child mortality has been the education of mothers. Among the strategies used to improve it is group education, which today is almost exclu¬sively the responsibility of midwives. But this was not always the case. This article focuses on the role of these professionals in the education of pregnant women in Spain, which began with the courses for mothers offered by the Escuela Nacional de Puericultura. From 1955 onwards, courses for pregnant women, aimed at disseminating methods for pain control in childbirth, began to become popular. The first two books published in Spain on the subject were launched in 1955 by a midwife and a doctor respectively, who had had to go abroad to be trained in these techniques. Initially it was the doctors who were most interested in spreading these pain control techniques, and specific units were set up in the large nursing homes of late Francoism. Some town coun¬cils also incorporated “birth preparation” into their service portfolio. But the real generalisation of maternal education came with the incorporation of midwives into Primary Health Care Centres at the end of the 1980s.</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/30589 Health Education at the Spanish school (1970-1990): Challenges at the intersection of fields of knowledge 2021-07-28T18:29:48+00:00 Inma Hurtado-García inma.hurtado@ua.es Aida Terrón-Bañuelos aterron@uniovi.es <p>The context of interpellation of international guidelines, the discursive effervescence around health reform in the 1970s and the absence of health education in the curriculum created the ideal conditions for the debate on the future of Health Education in the school environment. From the respec¬tive sectoral actions—especially from the health field—as well as from their synergies, a theoretical body and a conglomerate of practices emerged which served to structure and consolidate the field. A reflection was undertaken on the notion of health and on the context of the school as a fundamental locus from which to build a new social framework of responsibility in health. Likewise, the aim was to cover what the curriculum did not yet offer, i.e. the organisation of experiences, campaigns and various programmes with which to encourage community participation.</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/30556 The role assigned to health education in the Spain of the Democratic Transition 2021-07-26T09:08:32+00:00 Enrique Perdiguero-Gil quique@umh.es <p>In the mid-1970s, several health reform projects were discussed in Spain for the purpose of changing the outdated health system inherited from Francoism. In all these proposals, but especially in those promoted by the left¬ist parties, a primary role was assigned to the health education of the general population. In a health system that sought to defend health rather than cure diseases, the behaviour of the population in relation to the social and eco¬nomic factors that generated diseases was crucial. Furthermore, health edu¬cation was conceived as a way for the population to participate in the plan¬ning, management, and evaluation of health services. These generic statements were, on many occasions, naive and classic versions of health education, similar to those proposed by the government. The role of health education in rationalizing the use of health services was frequently invoked. Health re¬form projects tended to establish the hegemony of health workers over teach¬ers. Some more specific proposals gave way to more concrete actions at a local level that led to the development of the model of health education that was carried out in the following decades.</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/30599 Health education in the State of São Paulo, Brazil: conceptions spread between 1917 and 1967 2021-07-22T12:17:25+00:00 Maria Cristina da Costa Marques Maria Cristina mcmarques@usp.br DANILO FERNANDES BRASILEIRO danilo.brasileiro@hc.fm.usp.br João Oliveira João Gusmão joaogusmao@usp.br <p>The period from 1917 to 1967 was peculiar in the history of public health in São Paulo, Brazil, especially regarding the implementation and consolidation of measures aimed at individual and collective interventions supported by a set of norms and by hygienic rules for changing lifestyle hab­its, all made possible by numerous health education strategies. This study intends to identify the conceptions of health education that guided the prac­tice of health education between the years 1917 to 1967, in the State of São Paulo. It consists of a review of the scientific literature, consulted in digital databases, from which 214 previously selected articles from a rapid analysis led us to choose 14 articles for the documentary corpus of the study. Most of the 14 selected articles were produced by researchers from São Paulo be­tween 1936 and 2018, when the last article was published. We discovered two categories of analysis that reflect the concepts that underpinned the practice of health education in the State of São Paulo: (1) Health education as an Expression of Biopolitics and (2) Health education as an Expression of Eugenics. We conclude, therefore, that the State of São Paulo used health education as an ally to achieve its goals of building a project of modernity, leading to eugenics and biopolitics as the most compelling expressions of this process</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/30626 The broken children of Francoism. The experience of disability in a special education school run by the ANIC 2021-06-04T15:18:17+00:00 Salvador Cayuela Sánchez scayuela@um.es Mercedes Del Cura González Mercedes.DelCura@uclm.es <p>Beginning at the end of the 1960s, the Franco regime promoted the creation of institutions and centres for the education and training of children and young people with disabilities. These entities, often dependent on private initiative, supplemented the lacking structure of services and benefits that Francoism had organized until then to deal with the problem of disability. In this paper we analyze the operation and the educational work developed in one of these centres during the last years of Franco’s regime and the first years of the democratic transition: the Special Education Center “Nuestra Señora de la Fuensanta” in Churra (Murcia). To this end, we have combined archival documentation with qualitative research methodologies, specifically 7 in-depth, semi-structured interviews, carried out both with former students and with members of the teaching and management team of the centre during our period of study. Through the memories and personal experiences of the interviewees, the article provides an account of their experience of disability and conveys the effects that the patients’ passage through the centre had on their lives.</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/30659 Towards the creation of a “collective conscience” on hygiene and safety at the workplace: occupational medicine and educational action on workers (Spain, 1940-1980) 2021-09-02T15:58:59+00:00 José Martínez-Pérez jose.mperez@uclm.es <p>The Franco regime expressed its concern about occupational hazards very early on. Accidents at work and occupational diseases were not only a humanitarian problem, but also a threat to production. Occupational med¬icine was thus seen as a discipline that could make an important contribu¬tion to combating the damage caused by inadequate hygiene and a lack of safety in the workplace. <br />This article examines how occupational medicine approached the role of educating workers about the prevention of occupational hazards in the workplace. Taking as a reference the ideas on this issue expressed by Span¬ish occupational medicine specialists in their scientific publications, and the legislative sources in which their approaches were incorporated, the ar-ticle highlights how their contributions were in line with the regime’s objec¬tive of generating, among workers, a “collective conscience” of the need to combat accidents at the workplace and occupational diseases. It also shows how this indoctrination helped to develop the argument that there was a responsibility on the part of the worker for the loss of his or her health. </p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/30653 The silent child: Reform pedagogy, the self and the problematization of shyness in the classroom 2021-09-06T15:37:40+00:00 Pieter Verstraete pieter.verstraete@kuleuven.be <p> In the existing historical and sociological studies devoted to shyness scholars have identified the second half of the Twentieth century as an important period in which shy feelings have become a problem for Wes­tern societies. On the basis of the work of the American cultural histo­rian Warren Susman, and especially his ideas about the move from a character society towards a personality society, it is argued that the turn of the nineteenth century also played an important role in the emergence of negative interpretation of being and acting shy. In this article Susman’s attention for what happened at the start of the twentieth century is being taken up by examining the ideas about timidity in the work of one of the most important reform educators at that time, namely Maria Montessori. Montessori’s ideas are being contextualized by referring to the more en­compassing culture of personality and the self that paralleled the progres­sive era in education. By contraposing Montessori’s ideas to an eighteen­th-century ego-document written by someone who identified himself as a shy person we’d like to plea for a nuanced account with regard to the history of the problematization of shyness in general and shy children in particular.</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/32039 Teacher's praise 2021-10-21T17:12:31+00:00 Agustín Escolano Benito aeb05@telefonica.net <p>Review essay</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/31813 LUIS MIGUEL LÁZARO LORENTE. La «Nueva Atenas» del Mediterráneo. Vicente Blasco Ibáñez, cultura y educación populares en Valencia (1890-1931) 2021-10-11T08:12:37+00:00 Pauli Davila Balsera pauli.davila@ehu.es <p>Review</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/32074 JUAN MAINER BAQUE. Consagrar la distinción, producir la diferencia. Una historia del Instituto de Huesca a través de sus catedráticos (1845-1931) 2021-10-31T11:54:02+00:00 Antonio Viñao Frago avinao@um.es <p>Review</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/32040 RITA HOFSTETER, JOËLLE DROUX Y MICHEL CHRISTIAN (dirs.). Construire la paix par l´éducation: réseaux et mouvements internacionaux au XXe siècle au coeur d´une utopie 2021-10-21T17:15:50+00:00 Antón Costa Rico anton.costa@usc.es <p>Review</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/32073 EVELINA SCAGLIA (ed.). Una pedagogía dell’ascesa. Giuseppe Lombardo Radice e il suo tempo 2021-10-31T11:00:10+00:00 Antonio Francisco Canales Serrano antcanal@ucm.es <p>Review</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/32269 CECILIA MILITO BARAONE. Conflicto y convivencia en el discurso pedagógico oficial durante el tardofranquismo y la transición democrática española, 1965-1982 2021-11-22T17:41:42+00:00 Emilio Castillejo Cambra ecastillejo@pamplona.uned.es <p>Review</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 https://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/30559 Interview with Guillermo Rendueles Olmedo, psychiatrist 2021-04-06T20:35:21+00:00 Aida Terrón Bañuelos aterron@uniovi.es <p>In the course of compiling the professional biography of the psychiatrist Guillermo Rendueles, this document also charts a course through the closing decades of the twentieth century and the opening ones of the present century. It explores, as the interview unfolds, such issues as the developments in university education, the country’s political conflicts, the attempts to establish a new training system for Resident Doctors, the movement for the reform of psychiatric hospitals and the general trend in Mental Healthcare in a democratic Spain</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación