El encuadre pedagógico de los algoritmos educativos basados en datos

Daniel Domínguez Figaredo

Resumen


Los datos procedentes de los estudiantes y de las prácticas de aprendizaje son esenciales para alimentar los sistemas de inteligencia artificial empleados en educación. Asimismo, los datos generados recurrentemente son fundamentales para entrenar los algoritmos, de manera que puedan adaptarse a nuevas situaciones, ya sea para mejorar el ciclo de aprendizaje en su conjunto o para gestionar tareas repetitivas. A medida que los algoritmos se propagan en diferentes contextos de aprendizaje y se amplía su capacidad de acción, se requieren marcos pedagógicos que ayuden a interpretarlos y que amparen su uso adecuado. Basándose en el análisis de casos y en una revisión de la literatura científica, en este artículo se analizan los límites de las prácticas de aprendizaje fundamentadas en el uso masivo de datos desde un enfoque pedagógico. Se toman en consideración procesos clave como la captura de los datos, los sesgos en las bases de datos y el factor humano que está presente en el diseño de algoritmos de inteligencia artificial y de sistemas de Aprendizaje Automático. Con el fin de facilitar la gestión adecuada de los algoritmos educativos basados en datos, se plantea la idoneidad de introducir un marco pedagógico que permita analizar la idoneidad de los sistemas de inteligencia artificial y apoyar su evaluación, considerando su impacto en el proceso de aprendizaje. En ese sentido, se propone finalmente un conjunto de reglas de enfoque heurístico con el fin de mejorar los vacíos pedagógicos identificados y que puedan apoyar el uso educativo de los algoritmos basados en datos.


Palabras clave


práctica pedagógica; condiciones de aprendizaje; ciencias de la educación; pedagogía experimental; investigación educativa; tratamiento electrónico de datos.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5944/ried.23.2.26470

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