Metacognition as Scaffolding for the Development of Listening Comprehension in a Social MALL App / La metacognición como andamiaje para el desarrollo de la comprensión oral en una App de MALL social

Elena Barcena, Timothy Read

Resumen


This article focuses on the role that metacognition can effectively play in the development of second language listening comprehension, and specifically, how a mobile app can be specified for this end. A social mobile assisted listening app, ANT (Audio News Trainer), is presented as a prototype for exploring the way in which students can be helped to use metacognition to improve relevant linguistic communicative competences. A study has been undertaken with students using ANT to explore the intricate nature of the listening comprehension development process and the main metacognitive strategies that can be successfully applied. Special attention is paid to the implicitly and explicitly applied metacognitive strategies within the app, and related social network, where follow-on activities were undertaken, the strategies in question being: focus (a conscious effort on the gradual development of individual skills), engagement (interest is enhanced when a learning activity is enjoyable/successful), interaction (since collective activities seem to enhance emotional and social involvement), reflection (upon what works and does not work for each individual), self-regulation (through data about the students’ own progress and achievements), and attitude (here a further distinction is made between satisfaction, self-confidence and encouragement). The stages of engagement of a student with the app are explored in relation to the metacognitive strategy used and how they can contribute to the overall success of the learning experience. A final reflection is made about how metacognitive strategies offer an effective way to compensate for the lack of teacher presence, support and guidance on a medium/long term basis. However, although the study of the initial use of this social listening training app shows the potential for incorporating ‘knowing about knowing’ into mobile technology, it is suggested that future research is required to provide further finer-grained insights into this process.

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Este artículo trata acerca de la función que puede desempeñar eficazmente la metacognición en el desarrollo de la comprensión oral de segundas lenguas y, específicamente, cómo se puede crear una app móvil con este fin. Se presenta como prototipo una app de aprendizaje social asistido por móvil, de nombre ANT (Instructor de Noticias de Audio), con el fin de explorar el modo en que se puede asistir a los estudiantes para que empleen su capacidad metacognitiva y mejoren competencias lingüístico-comunicativas relevantes. Se ha llevado a cabo un estudio con estudiantes usando ANT para explorar la compleja naturaleza del proceso de desarrollo de la comprensión oral y las principales estrategias metacognitivas que pueden aplicarse satisfactoriamente. Se presta especial atención a las estrategias metacognitivas aplicadas implícita y explícitamente en la app y la red social relacionada, donde se realizan actividades subsiguientemente, siendo las estrategias en cuestión: foco (un esfuerzo consciente en el desarrollo gradual de habilidades individuales), compromiso (el interés crece cuando se disfruta y realiza con éxito una actividad), reflexión (sobre lo que funciona y no funciona para cada individuo), auto-regulación (a través de datos sobre el progreso y logros de los propios estudiantes) y actitud (en la que se aprecia una subdivisión entre la satisfacción, la confianza en uno mismo y el estímulo). Se exploran las etapas de compromiso de un estudiante con la app y como pueden contribuir al conjunto del éxito de la experiencia de aprendizaje. Finalmente, se realiza una reflexión sobre cómo las estrategias metacognitivas ofrecen un modo eficaz de compensar la falta de la presencia, el apoyo y la guía del profesor, a medio y largo plazo. Sin embargo, aunque el estudio del uso inicial de esta app para el desarrollo social de la comprensión auditiva muestra su potencial para incorporar ‘conocimiento sobre conocimiento’ en tecnología móvil, se sugiere la necesidad de contar con más investigación que permita una percepción más precisa de este proceso.


Palabras clave


Language Instruction; Computer Assisted Language Learning; Listening Comprehension; Metacognition / Enseñanza de lenguas; aprendizaje de lenguas asistido por ordenador; comprensión oral; metacognición

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/ried.19.1.14835

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