Fiabilidad y validez de la escala de actitudes hacia el medio ambiente natural para adolescentes (Aman-a)

Daniel Musitu-Ferrer, Macarena Esteban Ibáñez, Celeste León-Moreno, Juan Evaristo Callejas Jerónimo, Luis V. Amador-Muñoz

Resumen


Resumen: El objetivo de este trabajo fue construir y validar una escala de actitudes hacia el medio ambiente natural en adolescentes españoles. Se generaron 72 ítems a partir de los escritos de 264 adolescentes sobre actitudes hacia el medio ambiente. A través del juicio de expertos y de un estudio piloto se efectuó́ una depuración reduciendo la escala a 9 ítems que se administraron a una muestra de 833 adolescentes de ambos sexos. Mediante un análisis factorial exploratorio, se identificaron dos dimensiones, actitud proximal y actitud distal, que fueron replicadas a través de un análisis confirmatorio cuyos resultados mostraron un buen ajuste a los datos. Los índices de fiabilidad fueron adecuados y respecto de la validez se obtuvieron relaciones significativas con la empatía con el medio ambiente natural en sus dos dimensiones, cognitiva y emocional, y el ajuste escolar. También se obtuvieron diferencias significativas en función del género en la actitud distal, pero no en la actitud proximal. Se analizan los resultados obtenidos y se subraya la importancia de esta escala en la investigación ambiental en la adolescencia. 

Abstract: The aim of this study was to design and validate a scale of attitudes towards the natural environment among Spanish teenagers. 72 items were generated from the writings of 264 adolescents on attitudes towards the environment. Through expert judgement and a pilot study, a depuration was carried out, reducing the scale to 9 items that were administered to a sample of 833 adolescents of both sexes. By means of an exploratory Factor analysis, two dimensions were identified, proximal attitude and distal attitude, which were replicated through a confirmatory analysis whose results showed a good fit to the data. Reliability indices were adequate and with respect to validity significant relationships were obtained with empathy with the natural environment in its two dimensions, cognitive and emotional, and school adjustment. Significant gender differences were also found in distal, but not proximal, attitudes. Results obtained are analysed and the importance of this scale in environmental research in adolescence is also highlighted.


Palabras clave


Actitudes hacia el medio ambiente; Empatía con el medio ambiente; Ajuste escolar; Adolescencia; Attitudes towards the environment; Empathy with the environment; School adjustment; Adolescence

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