La adicción a las drogas, evolución y sociedad: un estudio sobre la adicción a partir de la psicología evolutiva

Thiago Perez Bernardes de Moraes, Geraldo Leopoldo Silva de Torrecillas

Resumen


Resumen:Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar los fundamentos evolutivos de la adicción humana a las sustancias psicoactivas. Con este fin, hemos utilizado dos hipótesis dicotómicas recurrentes en la literatura de la psicología evolutiva. La primera es que la selección natural ha estructurado mecanismos de placer en nuestra mente que están vinculados con el mantenimiento de la vida y el éxito reproductivo, y donde las drogas son una especie de atajo dentro de estos mecanismos, el co-opta por así decirlo. En este contexto, la adicción estaría vinculada a un desequilibrio químico en el cerebro causada por un desgaste. La otra hipótesis es que las drogas psicoactivas eran importantes para el mantenimiento de la vida de nuestros antepasados al pasar por momentos difíciles o incertidumbres. Por lo tanto, tenemos en cuenta su factor adictivo, que sería una consecuencia de adaptación de la utilización común de las drogas en el pasado. Nuestros resultados muestran que no es posible definir cuál de las hipótesis es más adherente, ya que ambos resultados muestran que los seres humanos son susceptibles a las adicciones.

Abstract: This article aims to analyze the evolutionary foundations of human addiction to psychoactive substances. To this end, we used two recurrent dichotomous hypotheses in evolutionary psychology literature. The first is that natural selection has structured mechanisms of pleasure in our mind that are linked to the maintenance of life and the reproductive success, and in that drugs are a kind of shortcut within these mechanisms, the co-opts so to speak. In this context the addiction would be linked to chemical imbalance in our brain caused by a wear. The other hypothesis is that psychoactive drugs were important for the maintenance of life of our ancestors when going through difficult times or uncertainties. So, if we consider its addictive factor it would be an adaptive consequence of the common use of drugs in the past. Our results show that even that is not possible to define which of the hypotheses is more adherent, both results show that humans are susceptible to addictions.


Palabras clave


Selección natural; Psicología Evolutiva; Drogas psicoactivas; Adicción; Natural Selection; Evolutionary Psychology; Psychoactive Drugs; Addiction

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Barron, A. B.; Maleszka, R.; Helliwell, P. G. & Robinson, G. E. (2009). Effects of cocaine on honey bee dance behaviour. Journal of Experimental Biology, 212 (2), 163-168.

Durrant, R.; Adamson, S.; Todd, F. & Sellman, D. (2009). Drug use and addiction: evolutionary perspective. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 43 (11), 1049-1056.

Dutton, D. (2009). The Art Instinct: Beauty, Pleasure, and Human Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Forbey, J. S. & Foley, W. J. (2009). PharmEcology: A pharmacological approach to understanding plant-herbivore interactions: an introduction to the symposium. Integrative and comparative biology, 49 (3), 267-273.

Fowler, J. H. & Schreiber, D. (2008). Biology, politics, and the emerging science of human nature. Science, 322 (5903), 912-914.

Fox, T. P.; Oliver, G. & Ellis, S. M. (2013). The Destructive Capacity of Drug Abuse: An Overview Exploring the Harmful Potential of Drug Abuse Both to the Individual and to Society. ISRN Addiction, 2013.

Gerald, M. S. & Higley, J. D. (2002). Evolutionary underpinnings of excessive alcohol consumption. Addiction, 97 (4), 415-425.

Gonçalvez, R., (1999). Globalização e desnacionalização. 1ª ed. São Paulo: Paz e Terra.

Gonçalvez, R., (2003). O nó econômico. 1ª ed. Rio de Janeiro: Record.

Gorelik, G., Shackelford, T. K., & Weekes-Shackelford, V. A. (2012). 27 Resource Acquisition, Violence, and Evolutionary Consciousness.

Hagen, E. H.; Sullivan, R. J.; Schmidt, R.; Morris, G.; Kempter, R. & Hammerstein, P. (2009). Ecology and neurobiology of toxin avoidance and the paradox of drug reward. Neuroscience, 160 (1), 69-84.

Haviland, W.; Prins, H.; Walrath, D. & Mcbride, B. (2011), Princípios de Antropologia. São Paulo: Cengage Learning

Howells, W. W. (1997). Getting here: The story of human evolution. Howells

House. John; Smith, S.; McQueen, D.; Edwards, L. & Schifano, F. (2013). Classical and novel psychoactive substances: rethinking drug misuse from an evolutionary psychiatric perspective. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, 28 (4), 394-401.

Kirkham, T. C. (2009). Endocannabinoids and the non-homeostatic control of appetite. In Behavioral Neurobiology of the Endocannabinoid System. Berlin: Springer., p. 231-253.

Koob, G. F., & Le Moal, M. (2001). Drug addiction, dysregulation of reward, and allostasis. Neuropsychopharmacology, 24 (2), 97-129.

Krill, A. L., Platek, S. M., Goetz, A. T., & Shackelford, T. K. (2007). Where evolutionary psychology meets cognitive neuroscience: A precís to evolutionary cognitive neuroscience. Evolutionary Psychology.

Liddle, J. R., Bush, L. S., & Shackelford, T. K. (2011). An introduction to evolutionary psychology and its application to suicide terrorism. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 3 (3), 176-197.

Lyvers, M. (2000). Loss of control in alcoholism and drug addiction: a neuroscientific interpretation. Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology, 8 (2), 225.

McKey, D.; Cavagnaro, T. R.; Cliff, J., & Gleadow, R. (2010). Chemical ecology in coupled human and natural systems: people, manioc, multitrophic interactions and global change. Chemoecology, 20 (2), 109-133.

Mithen, S. (1994). Technology and society during the Middle Pleistocene: hominid group size, social learning and industrial variability. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 4 (01), 3-32.

Mithen, S. (1995). Palaeolithic archaeology and the evolution of mind. Journal of Archaeological Research, 3 (4), 305-332.

Mithen, S. (1997). Cognitive archaeology, evolutionary psychology and cultural transmission, with particular reference to religious ideas. Archeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association, 7 (1), 67-74.

Mithen, S. (1998). A creative explosion. Creativity in human evolution and prehistory, 155-193.

Mithen, S. (2000). Mind, brain and material culture: An archaeological perspective. Evolution and the Human Mind: Modularity, Language and Metacognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 207-217.

Mithen, S. (2002). A pré-historia da mente. Uma busca das origens da arte, religião e da ciência. 1ª ed. São Paulo: Unesp.

Mithen, S. (2005). The singing Neanderthals: The origins of music, language, mind, and body. Harvard University Press.

Mithen, S. (2006). Ethnobiology and the evolution of the human mind. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 12 (s1), S45-S61.

Mithen, S. (2009). The Music Instinct. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1169 (1), 3-12.

Moraes, T. P. B. (2013). ¿ Por qué los hombres presentan un comportamiento más agresivo que las mujeres?. Por una antropología evelutiva del comportamiento agresivo. Nómadas: Revista Crítica de Ciencias Sociales y Jurídicas, 37 (1), 93-111.

Moraes, T. P. B. (2014). Politica, biologia e natureza humana. Uma introdução aos estudos de biopolítica evolutiva. Revista Electrónica de Psicología Política, 12(32).

Moraes, T. P. B., & Millani, F. (2014). Consumo Conspícuo e Racionalidade Limitada. Uma Crítica à Teoria da Escolha Racional a Partir da Psicologia Evolucionista. UNOPAR Científica Ciências Humanas e Educação, 15(2).

Nesse, R. M. (1994). An evolutionary perspective on substance abuse. Ethology and Sociobiology, 15(5), 339-348.

Nesse, R. M. (2002). Evolution and addiction. Addiction, 97(4), 470-471.

Nesse, R. M. & Berridge, K. C. (1997). Psychoactive drug use in evolutionary perspective. Science, 278 (5335), 63-66.

Nestler, E. J. (2005). The neurobiology of cocaine addiction. Science & Practice Perspectives, 3 (1), 4.

Nestler, E. J. (2014). Epigenetic mechanisms of drug addiction. Neuropharmacology, 76, 259-268.

Panksepp, J., Knutson, B., & Burgdorf, J. (2002). The role of brain emotional systems in addictions: a neuro-evolutionary perspective and new self-report animal model. Addiction, 97(4), 459-469.

Pharo, P. (2011). Sociologie cognitive et morale de l'addiction. Revue française de sociologie, 51(4), 692-719.

Pinker, S. (2004). Tábula Rasa. A negação contemporânea da natureza humana. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras.

Riddley, Matt, (2004). O que nos faz humanos. Genes, natureza e experiência. 1st ed. São Paulo: Record.

Saah, T. (2005). The evolutionary origins and significance of drug addiction. Harm reduction journal, 2(8), 2-8.

Savage, S. R.; Joranson, D. E.; Covington, E. C.; Schnoll, S. H.; Heit, H. A. & Gilson, A. M. (2003). Definitions related to the medical use of opioids: evolution towards universal agreement. Journal of pain and symptom management, 26 (1), 655-667.

Sullivan, R. J. & Hagen, E. H. (2002). Psychotropic substance seeking: evolutionary pathology or adaptation? Addiction, 97(4), 389-400.

Sullivan, R. J., Hagen, E. H., & Hammerstein, P. (2008). Revealing the paradox of drug reward in human evolution. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 275(1640), 1231-1241.

Wise, R. A. (1988). The neurobiology of craving: implications for the understanding and treatment of addiction. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,97(2), 118.

Wise, R. A. (1996). Neurobiology of addiction. Current opinion in neurobiology, 6 (2), 243-251.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5944/rdh.26.2015.16342

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.


Revista de Humanidades

ISSN (print): 1130-5029 / e-ISSN: 2340-8995

Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED)
Centro Asociado de Sevilla
Calle Jericó, 10
41007 Sevilla (España)

Teléfono: (+34) 954 12 95 90 / Fax: (+34) 954 12 95 91
E-mail: rdh@sevilla.uned.es

http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/rdh/index

DOI prefix: 10.5944/rdh

Siguenos en: