La guerra de la Naturaleza, la carestía y la muerte como fuente del diseño de los seres vivos

Giorgio Airoldi, Cristian Saborido

Resumen


El proyecto del ‘Darwinismo Formal’ de Alan Grafen propone una formulación matemática de la teoría de Darwin que pretende demostrar que la selección natural moldea los rasgos fenotípicos a través de la maximización de la eficacia (fitness). El proyecto de Grafen reposa sobre tres premisas: (1) la selección natural es la única fuerza que moldea los fenotipos; (2) la eficacia es la única medida de le evolución; y (3) el diseño biológico surge como resultado de un proceso de optimización selectiva. En este trabajo argumentamos que estas tres premisas limitan la aplicabilidad del modelo a los hechos evolutivos más simples. Esto se debe a que Grafen implícitamente presupone un concepto de eficacia que es a la vez causa y efecto de las novedades fenotípicas; lo que, por un lado, vacía la teoría de Darwin de poder explicativo y, por el otro, lleva a ignorar la potencial contribución de fuerzas evolutivas no selectivas en la configuración de la complejidad biológica. Para superar estos escollos del proyecto de del Darwinismo Formal - que son además comunes a todos los modelos formales adaptacionistas - proponemos sustituir el concepto causal de eficacia por el de robustez, definiendo así el diseño biológico como forma y función en lugar de como maximización de la eficacia.

Palabras clave


Filosofía de la Biología; Grafen; Evolución; Selección; Diseño Biológico

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5944/endoxa.46.2020.28849

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