Procesos de Aprendizaje en Aprendizaje-Servicio Universitario: Una Revisión Teórica

David García Romero, José Luis Lalueza

Resumen


El Aprendizaje-Servicio (ApS) ha extendido su alcance en la educación superior en las últimas décadas, incrementando el número de programas implementados y de centros que los sustentan. Este proceso ha sido acompañado por un despegue de la investigación, con la aparición de sociedades académicas y revistas dedicadas al ámbito. Pero estos encuentros científicos han evidenciados divergencias en la forma de entender el ApS en cuestiones fundamentales. En este trabajo analizamos una de esas divergencias: la diversidad de modelos conceptuales acerca de los procesos de aprendizaje propios del ApS y sus correspondientes líneas de investigación. Proponemos una discusión crítica sobre este tema que ayude a fundamentar un marco teórico sólido para el ApS.

Para ello realizamos una búsqueda bibliográfica en torno a los temas “procesos de aprendizaje” e “identidad” en Aprendizaje-Servicio, utilizando la base de datos ERIC. De los artículos encontrados, procedimos a una selección para su lectura en profundidad, en aras de encontrar las principales líneas de investigación en ApS y construir una discusión alrededor de los procesos de aprendizaje e identidad en los que se fundamenta la investigación actual.

Examinamos las similitudes y diferencias de tres perspectivas teóricas que identificamos como centrales en la investigación, el aprendizaje experiencial, el aprendizaje transformativo y las teorías críticas, y una cuarta emergente, el enfoque histórico-cultural, elaborando nuestra discusión en dos bloques: procesos de aprendizaje y procesos de identidad.

Nuestro análisis permite identificar diferentes procesos de aprendizaje e identidad presentes en los modelos teóricos analizados, que a nuestro juicio permiten definir los modelos de aprendizaje propios del ApS: reflexión a partir de la experiencia, transformación de la identidad a través de la alteridad, asunción de la agencia a través de la toma de conciencia social e implicación en una comunidad de prácticas a través de la construcción de significados y metas compartidos.


Palabras clave


Aprendizaje Servicio; Educación Superior; Psicología de la Educación; Procesos de Aprendizaje; Revisión de la Literatura

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Referencias


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5944/educxx1.22716

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