Escala de agresión entre pares para adolescentes y principales resultados [Bullying scale for adolescents and main results]

Nelda Cajigas de Segredo, Evelina Kahan, Mario Luzardo, Silvia Najson, Gabriela Zamalvide

Abstract


Resumen

La Escala de Agresión entre Pares (Bullying) se tradujo, adaptó, factorizó y validó en una muestra de 607 estudiantes secundarios de Montevideo, Uruguay. Se introducirá conceptualmente el fenómeno de Agresión entre Pares junto con el contexto en el cual se elaboró esta escala y se describirán su estructura y validación. La escala está compuesta por cuatro sub-escalas. Las dos primeras están asociadas a factores de riesgo: la Sub-Escala Influencias Externas (Conductas Transgresoras de Amigos y Actitud de Adultos sobre Violencia) y la Sub-Escala Actitud Personal hacia la Violencia (Actitud Facilitadora y Falta de Manejo de la Agresión). La Sub-Escala Conductas Prosociales amplía la comprensión del fenómeno aportando conductas positivas. En la cuarta sub-escala, Conductas Agresivas, surgieron tres dimensiones: Pelea, Intimidación y Burla. Las propiedades psicométricas son satisfactorias. En último término se presentan los resultados por género y edad que arrojan diferencias significativas consistentes con la literatura sobre esta temática.

Abstract

The Peer Aggression (Bullying) Scale was translated, adapted, factor-analyzed, and validated on a sample of 607 adolescents from a middle school in Montevideo, Uruguay. After reviewing the phenomenon of peer aggression and the context in which this instrument was developed, the scale structure, which is comprised of four subscales, and its validation are described. Two subscales are associated with risk factors: the Outside Influence subscale (with two components, Norm-breaking Friends and Adult Attitudes toward Violence) and the Personal Attitude Toward Violence subscale (with two components, Facilitating Attitudes and Lack of Aggression-management Ability). The Prosocial Behavior subscale broadens the evaluation of peer aggression by sampling positive behavior. The Aggressive Behaviors subscale has three components: Fighting, Bullying, and Teasing. The psychometric properties of the four subscales are satisfactory. The main results are further analyzed by gender and age, on which significant differences consistent with the literature on peer aggression emerged.


Keywords


Adolescencia; enseñanza media; agresión entre pares; bullying; escala; validación [Adolescence; middle school; peer aggression; bullying; scale; validation]



DOI: https://doi.org/10.5944/ap.3.3.511

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