Impacto de la activación emocional en el reconocimiento de emociones en personas adultas con Trastornos del Espectro del Autismo y Discapacidad Intelectual [Impact of Emotional Activation on the Recognition of Emotions in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability]

Marina Jodra, Domingo García-Villamisar

Abstract


Resumen

Uno de los síntomas nucleares de los Trastornos del Espectro del Autismo (TEA) es el déficit en el área socioemocional, mostrando patrones de respuesta atípicos ante los estímulos sociales y respondiendo con distintos niveles de activación o arousal (hiperexcitación o hipoexcitación). Algunas investigaciones han podido comprobar como la exposición a imágenes de valencia negativa tiene efectos en el reconocimiento posterior de emociones en población sin TEA. En cambio, los escasos estudios que existen acerca de la permeabilidad emocional en personas con TEA, muestran patrones atípicos de respuesta fisiológica ante la inducción de emociones. En la presente investigación se analiza la repercusión de la inducción emocional «negativa», a través de imágenes del International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang, Bradley y Cuthbert, 1995), en el reconocimiento de emociones a través del rostro mediante la Facial Discrimination Battery (FDB; Rojahn, Esbensen y Hoch, 2006), en un grupo de 31 personas adultas con TEA y discapacidad intelectual. Se realizó una ANOVA de medidas repetidas y los resultados demostraron la existencia de cierta «impermeabilidad» emocional, ya que la inducción de emociones no influyó en el reconocimiento emocional posterior. Estos resultados son coherentes con el modelo de hipoexcitación, que defiende que las personas con TEA experimentan menos excitación o recompensa cuando atienden a los estímulos sociales.

Abstract

One of the core symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is the deficit in the socio-emotional area, showing atypical response patterns to social stimuli and responding with different levels of activation or arousal (hyperexcita­tion or hypoexcitation). Some investigations have shown how exposure to negative valence images has an effect on the subsequent recognition of emotions in a population without ASD. In contrast, the few studies that exist on emotional permeability in people with ASD show atypical patterns of physiological response to the induction of emo­tions. In the present investigation, the impact of "negative" emotional induction is analyzed, through images of the In­ternational Affective Picture System (IAPS, Lang et al., 1995), in the recognition of emotions through the face through Facial Discrimination Battery (FDB; Rojahn et al., 2006), in a group of 31 adults with ASD and intellec­tual disability. An ANOVA of repeated measures was per­formed and the results demonstrated the existence of a cer­tain emotional "impermeability", since the induction of emotions did not influence the subsequent emotional recognition. These results are consistent with the hypoex­citation model, which argues that people with ASD expe­rience less excitement or reward when they attend to social stimuli.


Keywords


emociones; respuesta emocional; autismo; trastornos del espectro del autismo; desarrollo emocional; comportamiento social [Autism; Social behavior; Emotional de¬velopment; Emotions; Emotional response; Autism spectrum disorders]

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5944/ap.16.2.25566

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