Hope and Satisfaction with Life: Testing the Mediating Roles of Self-Esteem in three Asian Cultures

Allan B. I. Bernardo, Aqeel Khan, María Guadalupe C. Salanga

Abstract


The relationship between well-being and the personal strength of hope has been elaborated by the identification of internal (self) and external (family, peers, spiritual) locus-of-hope dimensions. Du, Bernardo, and Yeung (2015) showed that self-esteem (personal and relational) mediates the relationship between locus-of-hope and life satisfaction. Locus-of-hope’s goal-related thoughts involve self-evaluation that may either enhance or diminish self-worth, which then influences life satisfaction. We tested the mediated model in three cultural groups: Malaysians, Macau Chinese, and Filipinos. Participants completed scales measuring locus-of-hope, personal and relational self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Path analysis showed significant indirect effects in all cultures: (a) internal locus-of-hope on life satisfaction, mediated by personal self-esteem, and (b) external-family locus-of-hope on life satisfaction, mediated by relational self-esteem. Other significant indirect effects were found in specific cultural groups. Cross-cultural similarities and differences are discussed with reference to how distinct cultures give different meanings to forms of agency associated with the personal strength of hope, creating distinct pathways towards life satisfaction. 


Keywords


hope theory; locus-of-hope; self-esteem; relational self-esteem; satisfaction with life; culture; personal strengths

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alarcon, G. M., Bowling, N. A., & Khazon, S. (2013). Great expectations: A meta-analytic examination of optimism and hope. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 821-827.

Ashby, J. S., Dickinson, W. L., Gnilka, P. B., & Noble, C. L. (2011). Hope as a mediator and moderator of multidimensional perfectionism and depression in middle school students. Journal of Counseling & Development, 89, 131-139.

Berg, C. J., Rapoff, M. A., Snyder, C. R., & Belmont, J. M. (2007). The relationship of children's hope to pediatric asthma treatment adherence. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 2(3), 176-184.

Bernardo, A. B. I. (2010). Extending hope theory: Internal and external locus of trait hope. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 944-949.

Bernardo, A. B. I. (2015). Hope in early adolescence: Measuring internal and external locus-of-hope. Child Indicators Research, 8, 699-715.

Bernardo, A. B. I., & Estrellado, A. F. (2014). Measuring hope in the Philippines: Validating the short version of the Locus-of-Hope Scale in Filipino. Social Indicators Research, 119, 1649-1661.

Bernardo, A. B. I., & Estrellado, A. F. (2017a). Locus-of-hope and help-seeking intentions of Filipino battered women victims of intimate partner violence. Current Psychology, 36, 66-75.

Bernardo, A. B. I., & Estrellado, A. F. (2017b). Well-being of Filipino women who experienced intimate partner violence: A person-centered analysis. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 39, 360-376.

Bernardo, A. B. I., & Resurreccion, K. F. (2018). Financial stress and well-being of Filipino students: The moderating role of external locus-of-hope. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 51(1), 33-61.

Bernardo, A. B. I., Salanga, M. G. C., Khan, A., & Yeung, S. S. (2016). Internal and external loci-of-hope predict use of individual and collaborative learning strategies: Evidence from university learners in four Asian cities. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 25, 367-376.

Bernardo, A. B. I., Wang, T. Y., Pesigan, I. J. A., & Yeung, S. S. (2017). Pathways from collectivist coping to life satisfaction among Chinese: The roles of locus-of-hope. Personality and Individual Differences, 106, 253-256.

Bernardo, A. B. I., Yeung, S. S., Resurreccion, K. F., Resurreccion, R. R., & Khan, A. (in press). External locus-of-hope, well-being, and coping of students: A cross-cultural investigation within Asia. Psychology in the Schools.

Chang, E. C. (2017). Hope and hopelessness as predictors of suicide ideation in Hungarian college students. Death Studies, 41(7), 455-460.

Chang, E. C., Jilani, Z., Yu, T., Lin, J., Muyan, M., & Hirsch, J. (2017). Relation between sexual assault and negative affective conditions in female college students: Does loss of hope account for the association? Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 32, 1249-1266.

Chang, E. C., Yang, H., & Yu, T. (2017). Perceived interpersonal sources of life satisfaction in Chinese and American students: cultural or gender differences?. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 12, 414-424.

Ciarrochi, J., Parker, P., Kashdan, T. B., Heaven, P. C. L., & Barkus, E. (2015). Hope and emotional well- being: A six-year study to distinguish antecedents, correlates, and consequences. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 10(6), 520–532.

Crabtree, S. (2010). Religiosity highest in world’s poorest nations. Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com/poll/142727/religiosity-highest-world-poorest-nations.aspx

Datu, J. A. D., & Mateo, N. J. (2017). How to combat the negative impact of discrimination in a collectivist context? The safeguarding function of peer-oriented hope. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 22, 345-351.

Diener, E., & Diener, M. (2009). Cross-cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem. In E. Diener (Ed.), Culture and well-being (pp. 71–91). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

Diener, E. D., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71-75.

Douglass, R. P., & Duffy, R. D. (2014). Strengths use and life satisfaction: A moderated mediation approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16(3), 619-632.

Du, H., Bernardo, A. B. I., & Yeung, S. S. (2015). Locus-of-hope and life satisfaction: The mediating roles of personal self-esteem and relational self-esteem. Personality and Individual Differences, 83, 228-233.

Du, H., & King, R. B. (2013). Placing hope in self and others: Exploring the relationships among self-construals, locus of hope, and adjustment. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 332-337.

Du, H., King, R. B., & Chi, P. (2012). The development and validation of the Relational Self-esteem Scale. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 53, 258-264.

Du, H., King, R. B., & Chi, P. (2017). Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem. PloS one, 12(8), e0183958.

Du, H., Li, X., Chi, P., Zhao, J., & Zhao, G. (2018). Psychometric properties of the Relational Self-Esteem Scale in a community-based sample in China. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 34, 154-161.

Feldman, D. B., & Kubota, M. (2015). Hope, self-efficacy, optimism, and academic achievement: Distinguishing constructs and levels of specificity in predicting college grade-point average. Learning and Individual Differences, 37, 210-216.

Feldman, D. B., Rand, K. L., & Kahle-Wrobleski, K. (2009). Hope and goal attainment: Testing a basic prediction of hope theory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28, 479-497.

Gilman, R., Dooley, J., & Florell, D. (2006). Relative levels of hope and their relationship with academic and psychological indicators among adolescents. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 25, 166-178.

Hirschi, A., Abessolo, M., & Froidevaux, A. (2015). Hope as a resource for career exploration: Examining incremental and cross-lagged effects. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 86, 38-47.

Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Jin, B., & Kim, Y. C. (2018). Rainbows in the society: A measure of hope for society. Asian Journal of Social Psychology. Published online September 2018, https://doi.org/10.1111/ajsp.12339

Jovanović, V. (2013). Evaluation of the Children’s Hope Scale in Serbian adolescents: Dimensionality, measurement invariance across gender, convergent and incremental validity. Child Indicators Research, 6, 797-811.

Kagitcibasi, C. (1997). Individualism and collectivism. In J. W. Berry, M. H. Segall, & C. Kagitcibasi (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology: Vol. 3. Social behavior and applications (pp. 1-49). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

King, R. B., Ganotice, F. A., & Watkins, D. A. (2014). A cross-cultural analysis of achievement and social goals among Chinese and Filipino students. Social Psychology of Education, 17, 439-455.

King, R. B., McInerney, D. M., & Watkins, D. A. (2012). Studying for the sake of others: The role of social goals on academic engagement. Educational Psychology, 32, 749-776.

King, R. B., McInerney, D. M., & Watkins, D. A. (2013). Examining the role of social goals in school: A study in two collectivist cultures. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28, 1505-1523.

Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 20, 568-579.

Markus, H. R, & Kitayama, S. (2003). Models of agency: Sociocultural diversity in the construction of action. In V. Murphy-Berman, & J. J. Berman (eds.), Cross-cultural differences in perspectives on the self (pp. 1-57). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Marques, S. C., Lopez, S. J., & Pais-Ribeiro, J. L. (2011). “Building hope for the future”: A program to foster strengths in middle-school students. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12, 139-152.

Merkaš, M., & Brajša-Žganec, A. (2011). Children with different levels of hope: are there differences in their self-esteem, life satisfaction, social support, and family cohesion? Child Indicators Research, 4, 499-514.

Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 3-72.

Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Shulruf, B., Hattie, J., & Dixon, R. (2007). Development of a new measurement tool for individualism and collectivism. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 25(4), 385-401.

Singelis, T. M., Triandis, H. C., Bhawuk, D. P. S., & Gelfand, M. J. (1995). Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism: A theoretical and measurement refinement. Cross-Cultural Research, 29, 240–275.

Snyder, C. R. (2002). Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 249-275.

Snyder, C. R., Harris, C., Anderson, J. R., Holleran, S. A., Irving, L. M., Sigmon, S. T., … Harney, P. (1991). The will and the ways: Development and validation of an individual differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 570–585.

Takano, Y., & Osaka, E. (2018). Comparing Japan and the United States on individualism/collectivism: A follow‐up review. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 21, 301-316.

Triandis, H. C. (1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Visser, P. L., Loess, P., Jeglic, E., & Hirsch, J. (2013). Hope as a moderator of negative life events and depressive symptoms in a diverse sample. Stress and Health, 29, 82-88.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5944/ap.15.2.23456

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Faculty of Psychology. Applied Psychology Service (UNED)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.


Attribution-NonCommercial  (CC BY-NC)This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.

 

Accion Psicologica

Applied Psychology Service (SPA), Faculty of Psychology (UNED).

C/ Juan del Rosal nº 10 28040 Madrid.

email: accionpsicologica@psi.uned.es

eISSN: 2255-1271