Saliencia Aberrante y Componentes del Modelo de Gray en el Desarrollo de la Sintomatología Positiva [Aberrant Salience and Components of the Gray´s Model in the Development of Positive Symptomatology]

Marta Sánchez-Arjona Casquete de Prado, Rafael Martínez Cervantes, Cristina Senín-Calderón, Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Testal

Abstract


Resumen

Recientemente, las investigaciones centradas en estudio de las bases de la psicosis han puesto el acento en la saliencia aberrante (Kapur, 2003). Asimismo, se ha demostrado que los sistemas emocionales propuestos por Gray (1982), relacionados con la sensibilidad al castigo y la sensibilidad a la recompensa, influyen en el desarrollo de diversas psicopatologías. Apenas se ha investigado sobre el papel de estos sistemas en la sintomatología positiva. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el papel mediador de la sensibilidad al castigo y la sensibilidad a la recompensa en la relación entre la saliencia aberrante y la sintomatología positiva, entendida como ideas de referencia, ideas persecutorias y propensión alucinatoria en una muestra compuesta por 259 estudiantes de la Universidad de Sevilla (España). Los resultados mostraron una mediación parcial de la sensibilidad al castigo y la sensibilidad a la recompensa en el modelo de mediación de las ideas de referencia, así como una mediación parcial de la sensibilidad a la recompensa en el modelo de la propensión alucinatoria. No obstante, no se observó mediación ni de la sensibilidad al castigo ni de la sensibilidad a la recompensa en el modelo de las ideas persecutorias. Según estos resultados, parecer ser que la sensibilidad al castigo y la sensibilidad a la recompensa son características básicas de la personalidad que podrían influir en el desarrollo de algunos síntomas positivos, y por ello, de la psicosis.

Abstract

Recently, research focused on the study of the bases of psychosis has placed the accent on aberrant salience (Kapur, 2003). Likewise, it has been shown that the emotional systems proposed by Gray (1982), related to sensitivity to punishment and sensitivity to reward, influence the development of various psychopathologies. The role of these systems in psychosis has hardly been investigated. The objective of this work was to study the mediating role of sensitivity to punishment and sensitivity to reward in the relationship between aberrant salience and positive symptomatology, understood as ideas of reference, persecutory ideas and hallucinatory propensity in a sample composed of 259 students of the University of Seville (Spain). The results showed a partial mediation of the sensitivity to punishment and the sensitivity to reward in the mediation model of the ideas of reference, as well as a partial mediation of the SR in the model of the hallucinatory propensity. However, no mediation was observed neither of the sensitivity to punishment nor of the sensitivity to reward in the persecutory ideas model. According to these results, it seems that the sensitivity to punishment and sensitivity to reward are basic characteristics of the personality that could influence the development of some positive symptoms, and therefore, of psychosis.


Keywords


saliencia aberrante; personalidad; sensibilidad al castigo; sensibilidad a la recompensa; sintomatología positiva; psicosis [Aberrant salience; Personality; Sensitivity to punishment; Sensitivity to reward; Positive sympto-matology; Psychosis]

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5944/ap.16.1.22205

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