Revisión de la autocaracterización: una técnica narrativa constructivista [Review of Self-characterization: A Constructive Narrative Technique]

Javier González Encinas, Luis Ángel Saúl Gutiérrez, Jesús García Martínez

Abstract


Resumen

La autocaracterización es una técnica narrativa enmarcada dentro de la Teoría de los Constructos Personales (Kelly, 1955). Se diferencia de otras técnicas narrativas por la estructura de sus instrucciones, donde se solicita a la persona describirse a sí misma en tercera persona de una forma íntima; y por el formato de corrección, que trata de desenfocar al lector de su visión y asumir el punto de vista del autor como propio, así como por explorar el proceso y el sistema de construcción personal. Pese a ser destacada por su utilidad clínica (G. J. Neimeyer, 1996), no se han encontrado trabajos que reúnan los principales resultados que ha cosechado esta técnica. El objetivo de la presente investigación es analizar las similitudes y las diferencias encontradas en los trabajos que hacen uso de ella. Para dar respuesta, se lleva a cabo una revisión de literatura que reúne las principales contribuciones sobre la autocaracterización. Se ha tenido en cuenta la metodología empleada en los estudios, el formato de instrucción y de corrección y las etapas de análisis. La investigación muestra que el acercamiento crédulo, la flexibilidad de las instrucciones y la exploración de los constructos personales son los puntos recurrentes en los distintos trabajos recopilados. Se concluye que el formato de corrección, escasamente sistematizado, está influyendo negativamente en su uso y en su difusión a nivel empírico. Adicionalmente, se indica la necesidad de generar un protocolo de análisis que integre las principales etapas de análisis y actitudes del terapeuta que más atención han cosechado.

Abstract

Self-characterization is a narrative technique framed in Personal Construct Theory (PCT; Kelly, 1955). It is differentiated from others narrative techniques by its elicited instructions, where is request a third person selfdescription in a sympathetic and intimate way, and by analysis protocol, that try to blur the reader from his own vision and assume the author’s point of view as his own, like so explore the process and the system of personal construct. Despite being highlighted for therapeutic useful (G. J. Neimeyer, 1996), no works founds that gather the self-characterizations finds. The objective is analyzing the differences and similarities founded between research which use self-characterization. For give an answer, it is made a literature review that group the main contributions about this technique. It has been taken in consideration the methodology, instructions and analysis format, and analysis phases. This paper sample that credulous approach, instruction flexibility and personal construct exploration are the recurrent point in compiled works. It is been concluded that analysis format, poorly systematized, supposes a negative influence in its use and diffusion at empiric level. Additionally, it is indicated the need to generate a new protocol to analysis that integrated the principal phases and therapeutic attitude that have garnered more attention.


Keywords


autocaracterización; narrativa; revisión; técnica de rejilla; teoría de los Constructos Personales [Self-characterization; Narrative; Review; Personal Construct Theory]

References


*Androutsopoulou, A. (2001). The Self-characterization as a Narrative Tool: Applications in Therapy with Individuals and Families. Family Process, 40(1), 79–41. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.2001.401010079

*Ashkar, C. (2015). Finding our many selves: A personal construct psychology approach to positive mental health (Tesis de Máster), Universidad de Wollongong). Wollongong, Australia. Recuperado de http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5717&context=theses

Beach, R. (1977). Writing about ourselves and others (Informe Nº. 400-75-0029). Recuperado de https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED141831

*Bell, S. J. y Bell, R. C. (2008). An Illustration of Self Characterization in a Child’s Drawing: The Importance of Process. Personal Construct Theory & Practice, 5, 1–9.

Bruner, J. (1997). La educación, puerta de la cultura [The culture of Education]. Madrid, España: Visor Dis.

Bruner, J. (2003). La fábrica de historias: derecho, literatura, vida [Taking Stories: Law, Literature, Life]. México, México: Fondo de Cultura Económica.

*Blowers, G. H. y O’Connor, K. P. (1995). Construing Contexts: Problems and Prospects of George Kelly’s Personal Construct Psychology. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 34(1), 1–16.

Booth, A., Papaioannou, D. y Sutton, A. (2012). Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review. Londres, Reino Unido: Sage.

*Botella, L. y Feixas, G. (1998). La exploración del sistema de construcción del cliente [The Exploration of Personal Construct System]. En L. Botella y G. Feixas (Eds.), Teoría de los constructos personales: aplicaciones a la práctica psicológica [Personal Construct Theory: Applications to Psychology Practice] (pp. 64-95). Barcelona, España: Laertes.

Botella, L. y Gamiz, M. (2012). Narrative Assessment in Psychotherapy: A constructivist Approach. En P. Caputi, L. L. Viney, B. M. Walker y N. Crittenden (Eds.), Personal Construct Methodology (pp. 247–268). West Sussex, Reino Unido: John Willey.

*Buckley-Walker, K., Crowe, T. P. y Caputi, P. (2013). Measuring Identity Processes in Family Relational Empowerment. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 11(3), 358–368. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-012-9420-3

*Crittenden, N. y Ashkar, C. (2012). The Self-Characterization Technique: Uses, Analysis, and Elaboration. En P. Caputi, L. L. Viney, B. M. Walker y N. Crittenden (Eds.), Personal Construct Methodology (pp. 109–128). West Sussex, Reino Unido: Willey.

*Cote, R. L. (1995). George Kelly: The Theory of Personal Constructs and His Contributions to Personality Theory. Recuperado de https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED397368.pdf

Chang, M. F., Ng, S. E., Tien, A., Man, R. C. y Thayala, J. (2013). A Randomized Controlled Study to Explore the Effect of Life Story Review on Depression in Older Chinese in Singapore. Health & Social Care in the Community, 21(5), 545–553. https://doi.org/10.1111/hsc.12043

*Denicolo, P. (2003). Elicitation Methods to Fit Different Purposes. En F. Fransella (Ed.), International Handbook of Personal Construct Psychology (pp. 123–133). West Sussex, Reino Unido: John Willey.

Di Fabio, A. y Bernaud, J. L. (2018). Narrative Interventions in Post-Modern Guidance and Career Counseling: A Review of Case Studies and Innovate Qualitative Approaches. Cham, Suiza: Springer.

Dun, C. D. (2017). Personal Narratives and Self-Transformation in Postindustrial Societies. Annual Review of Anthropology, 46, 65–80. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-anthro-102116-041702

*Faccio, E., Cipolleta, S., Romaioli, D. y Ruiba, S. (2011). Control in Bulimic Experience at the Beginning and the End of Therapy. Personal Construct Theory & Practice, 8, 24–37.

Farkas, D. y Orosz, G. (2013). The Link between Ego-Resiliency and Changes in Big Five Traits after Decisión Making: The case of Extraversión. Personality and individual differences, 55(4), 440–445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2013.04.003

*Feixas, G. y Gallinat, N. (1989). La técnica de rol fijo [Fix-Rol Technique]. Revista de psiquiatría y Psicología humanista, 26, 70–81.

Feixas, G. y Villegas, M. (1991). Personal Construct Analysis of Authobiographical Texts: A Method Presentation and Case Illustration. International Journal of Personal Construct Psychology, 4, 31–83. https://doi.org/10.1080/08936039108404761

Feixas, G., Monferrer, M. C. Geldschläger, H. y Ruiz, B. G. (2002). Sistema de categorías de contenido para codificar constructos personales [System of Thematic Content to Codex Personal Construct]. Revista de Psicología General y Aplicada: Revista de la Federación Española de Asociaciones de Psicología, 55(3), 337–348.

García-Martínez, J. (2012). Técnicas narrativas en psicoterapia [Narratives Techniques in Psychotherapy]. Madrid, España: Síntesis.

Gergen, K. (1996). Realidades y relaciones: aproximaciones a la construcción social [Realities and Relationships: Soundings in Social Constructionism]. Barcelona, España: Paidós.

*Green, B. (2004). Personal Construct Psychology and Content Analysis. Personal Construt Theory & Practice, 1(3), 82–91.

*Green, B. (2016). An Application of Computerised Corpus Linguistics Techniques to Analyze Text – A Personal Construct Theory Perspective. Personal Construct Theory & Practice, 13, 1–12.

*Green, D. y Kirby-Turner, N. (1990). First Steps in Family Therapy: A Personal Construct Analysis. Journal of Family Therapy, 12(2), 139–154. https://doi.org/10.1046/j..1990.00379

*Hamad, E. y Lee, C. (2013). A Personal Construct Approach to Discovering the Transition Experience of Studying Abroad. Personal Construct Theory & Practice, 10, 15-27.

*Hardison, H. G. y Neimeyer, R. A. (2007). Numbers and Narratives: Quantitative and Qualitative Convergence Across Constructivist Assessments. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 20(4), 285–308. https://doi.org/10.1080/10720530701503827

*Hardison, H. G. y Neimeyer, R. A. (2012). Assessment of Personal Constructs: Features and Functions of Constructivist Techniques. En P. Caputi, L. L. Viney, B. M. Walker y N. Crittenden (Eds.), Personal Construct Methodology (pp. 3–52). West Sussex, Reino Unido: John Willey.

*Hopkins, N. J. (2012). Is there a Typical Agoraphobic Core Structure? Personal Construct Theory & Practice, 9, 19–27.

*Jackson, S. R. (1988). Self-Characterization: Dimensions of Meaning. En F. Fransella y L. F. Thomas (Eds.), Experimenting with personal construct psychology (pp. 223–231). Londres, Reino Unido: Routledge.

*Kelly, G. A. (1955). Personal Construct Psychology Vol 1: Theory and personality. Londres, Reino Unido: Routledge.

Landfiel, A. W. (1971). Personal Construct Systems in Psychotherapy. Oxford, Reino Unido: Rand McNally.

Lindquist, K. A. y Barret, L. F. (2008). Emotional Complexity. En M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones y Barret L. F. (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp. 513–533). Nueva York, NY: Guilford Press.

*Lovenfosse, M. y Viney, L. L. (1999). Understanding and Helping Mothers of Children with “Special Needs” Using Personal Construct Group Work. Community Mental Health Journal, 35(5), 431–442. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1018782411768

Masini, C. (2015). Psicodrama. Reflexiones desde la práctica clínica en un Hospital de Día Psiquiátrico [Psychodrama. Reflections form the Clinic Practice in a Psychiatric Day Hospital]. Arteterapia. Papeles de arteterapia y educación artística para la inclusión social, 10, 153–164.

Mair, J. M. M. (1977). The community of Self. En D. Bannister (Ed.), New Perspectives in Personal Construct Theory. Nueva York, NY: Academic Press.

McAdams, D. P. (1993). The Stories we Live by: Personal Myths and the Making of the Self. Nueva York, NY: Guildford.

McAdams, D. P. (1994). Can Personality Change? Levels of Stability and Growth in Personality across the Lifespan. En T. Heatherton y J. Weinberger (Eds.), Can personality change? (pp. 299–213). Washington, DC: APA Books.

McLean, S. (2015). Individual Autonomy or Social Engagement? Adult Learners in Neoliberal Times. Adult Education Quarterly, 65(3), 196–214. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741713615573984

Moreno, J. L. (1995). Psicodrama [Psychodrama]. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Lumen.

Müller, K. W., Beutel, M. E., Wölfling, K. (2014). A Contribution to the Clinical Characterization of Internet Addiction in a Sample of Treatment Seekers: Validity of Assessment, Severity of Psychopathology, and Type Co-Morbidity. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 55(4), 770–777. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.01.010

Neimeyer, G. J. (1996). Evaluación Constructivista [Constructivist Assessment]. Barcelona, España: Paidos.

*Neimeyer, R. A., Ray, L., Hardison, H., Raina, K., Kelley, R. y Krantz, J. (2003). Fixed Role in a Fishbowl: Consultation-based Fixed Role Therapy as a Pedagogical Technique. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 16(3), 249–271. https://doi.org/10.1080/10720530390209270

*Procaccia, R., Veronese, G. y Castiglioni, M. (2014). Self-characterization and Attachment Style: A Creative Method of Investigating Children’s Construing. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 27(3), 174–193. https://doi.org/10.1080/10720537.2014.904701

Real Academia Española. (2014). Caracterizar. Diccionario de la lengua española [Dictionary of Spanish Language] (23ª ed.). Recuperado de http://dle.rae.es/?id=7OpEEFy

*Reed, N., Winter, D., Schulz, J., Aslan, E., Soldevilla, J. M. y Kuzu, D. (2014). An Exemplary Life? A Personal Construct Analysis of the Autobiography of Rudolf Hoess, Commandant of Auschwitz. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 27(4), 274–288. https://doi.org/10.1080/10720537.2013.849214

Spence, D. P. (1982). Narrative Truth and Historical Truth: Meaning and Interpretation in Psychoanalysis. Nueva York, NY: Norton.

Stephenson, G. M., Laszlo, J., Ehmann, B., Lefever, R. [Robert] M. H. y Lefever, R. [Robin]. (1997). Diaries of Significant Events: Socio-linguistic Correlates of Therapeutic Outcomes in Patients with Addiction Problems. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 7, 389–411. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1298(199712)7:5<389::AID-CASP434>3.0.CO;2-R

Traen, B. y Sorensen, D. (2008). A Qualitative Study of how Survivors of Sexual, Psychological, and Physical Abuse Manage Sexuality and Desire. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 23(4), 377–391. https://doi.org/10.1080/14681990802385699

*Truneckova, D. y Viney, L. L. (2007). Evaluating Personal Construct Group with Troubled Adolescents. Journal of Counselling & Development, 85(4), 450–460. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6678.2007.tb00613.x

*Truneckova, D. y Viney, L. L. (2012). Personal Construct Psychology Model of School Counselling Delivery. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 40(5), 431–448. https://doi.org/10.1080/03069885.2012.718739

*Vall, B. y Botella, L. (2014). Narrative Assessment: Differences between Anxious and Depressed Patients. Narrative Inquiry, 24(1), 132–152. https://doi.org/10.1075/ni.24.1.07val

*Veronese, G., Procaccia, R. y Castiglioni, M. (2012). Attachment Styles and Construction of Self in a Clinical Group of Aerophobic: A Pilot Study. Psychological studies, 57(3), 303–309. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12646-011-0136-4

*Veronese, G., Procaccia, R., Romaioli, D., Barola, G. y Castiglioni, M. (2013). Psychopathological Organizations and Attachment Styles in Patients with Fears of Flying: A Case Study. The Open Psychology Journal, 6, 20–27. https://doi.org/10.2174/1874350101306010020

*Veronese, G., Procaccia, R., Ruggiero, G. M., Sassaroli, S. y Castiglioni, M. (2015). Narcissim and Defending Self-Esteem. An Exploratory Study Base on Self-characterizations. The Open Psychology Journal, 2015, 8, 38–43. https://doi.org/10.2174/1874350101508010038

*Viney, L. L. y Caputi, P. (2012). Using Constructivist-oriented Content Analysis Scales. En P. Caputi, L. L. Viney, B. M. Walker y N. Crittenden (Eds.), Personal Construct Methodology (pp. 223–246). West Sussex, Reino Unido: Willey.

*Winter, D. A. y Tschudi, F. (2015). Construing a “Perfect Knight”: A Personal Construct Investigation of Mass Murder. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 28(2), 139–151. https://doi.org/10.1080/10720537.2013.846837

*Winter. D. A., Gournay, K., Metcalfe, C. y Rossotti, N. (2006). Expanding Agoraphobics’ Horizons: An Investigation of the Effectiveness of a Personal Construct Psychotherapy Intervention. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 19, 1–29. https://doi.org/10.1080/10720530500311141




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5944/ap.16.1.22192

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.

Comments on this article

View all comments


Copyright (c) 2019 Faculty of Psychology. Applied Psychology Service (UNED)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.


Attribution-NonCommercial  (CC BY-NC)This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.

 

Accion Psicologica

Applied Psychology Service (SPA), Faculty of Psychology (UNED).

C/ Juan del Rosal nº 10 28040 Madrid.

email: accionpsicologica@psi.uned.es

eISSN: 2255-1271