Ajuste psicológico y habilidades para la resolución de problemas en condenados por homicidio o tentativa de homicidio [Psychological Adjustment and Problem Solving Skills in Convicted by Murder or Attempted Murder]

Manuel Vilariño, Bárbara G. Amado, Elsa Fernandes, Ramón Arce

Abstract


Resumen

Con el objetivo de conocer el ajuste psicológico (sinto­matología y diagnóstico clínico) y las destrezas para la resolución de problemas (afrontamiento) en una pobla­ción de homicidas, se ha llevado a cabo un estudio en el que se contrastaron ambos factores entre una muestra de condenados por homicidio o tentativa de homicidio, con la población normativa. Participaron en el estudio 27 hombres internos en el Centro Penitenciario de Oporto (Portugal), con una edad promedio de 38.63 años. Para la medida del ajuste psicológico se acudió al SCL-90-R, mientras que el afrontamiento fue evaluado mediante el CRI-A. Los resultados revelaron que los reclusos mos­traban una probabilidad superior de ser clasificados como casos clínicos en las dimensiones clínicas del SCL-90-R, a excepción de Hostilidad, así como puntuaciones significativamente más elevadas en las dimensiones clí­nicas a excepción de Hostilidad y Ansiedad Fóbica, y en los tres índices globales (i.e., GSI, PST, PSDI). Además, la muestra de condenados se caracterizaba por acudir a estrategias de afrontamiento evitativas, que son recono­cidas como formas desadaptativas o improductivas. Asi­mismo, del estudio de las características delictivas se ve­rificó que la mayoría de los acusados guardaban algún tipo de relación previa con la víctima, y que la muestra homicida se caracterizaba por versatilidad delictiva y tendencia a la reincidencia. Se discuten las implicaciones de estos resultados para la práctica profesional en el contexto penitenciario. 

Abstract

With the aim of knowing about psychological adjustment (clinical symptomatology and diagnosis) and problem-solving skills (coping) in a homicide prison inmate pop­ulation, a study to contrast sentenced murderers or at­tempted murderers with the normative population was conducted. Participated in the research, 27 male prison inmates at the Prison of Oporto (Portugal) with an age average of 38.63. Psychological adjustment and coping strategies were measured with the SCL-90-R checklist and the CRI-A questionnaire, respectively. The results exhibited that prison inmates showed a higher probability of being classified as clinical cases in most of the SCL-90-R dimensions (except in Hostility), as well as signifi­cantly higher scores in almost all of them (with the ex­ception of Hostility and Phobic Anxiety), an in the global indexes (i.e., GSI, PST, PSDI). Furthermore, prison in­mates were characterized by using avoidance coping strategies, which are considered such as maladaptive or unproductive. Likewise, the results from the crimino­logical characteristics of the inmates have revealed that homicides had a previous relationship with the victim, criminal versatility and a recidivism trend. Implications of the results for professional practice in penitentiary setting are discussed.


Keywords


Ajuste psicológico; Sintomatología clínica; Habilidades de resolución de problemas; Afrontamiento; Homicidio; Reclusos [Psychological adjustment; Clinical symptoms; Problem solving skills; Coping; Murder; Prison inmates]

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5944/ap.14.2.20792

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