Adaptación a la prisión y ajuste psicológico en una muestra de internos en centros penitenciarios [Adaptation to prison and psychological adjustment in a sample of prison inmates]

Mercedes Novo, Ana Pereira, María José Vázquez, Bárbara G. Amado

Abstract


Resumen

Aunque la literatura ha abordado ampliamente el estudio de la prisionización, el análisis de los efectos de las va­riables criminológicas en la adaptación a prisión y del estatus social en prisión, y de éstas en el ajuste psicoló­gico y las destrezas cognitivas que emplean los internos no ha sido suficientemente trabajado. Para conocer de ello, evaluamos en variables criminológicas, adaptación a prisión, estatus social en prisión, ajuste psicológico y destrezas cognitivas a una muestra de 112 internos varo­nes en cumplimiento de una pena privativa de libertad de una prisión portuguesa, con edades entre 23 y 74 años (M = 40.40, DT = 1.04), 77 (68.8 %) con antecedentes penales (reincidentes). Los resultados revelaron que las variables criminológicas (e.g., problemas en la familia) estaban relacionados con niveles más bajos de adapta­ción a la prisión. Además, los internos presentaban peor ajus­te psicológico que la población general, y los reinci­dentes que los primarios. Asimismo, también pusieron de manifiesto que los internos se caracterizaban en la reso­lución de problemas por recurrir a estrategias de afron­tamiento evitativas (i.e., Evitación cognitiva, Aceptación o Resignación, Búsqueda de recompensas alternativas, Descarga emocional), en detrimento de las aproximativas (i.e., Análisis lógico). Se discuten las implicaciones de los resultados para el diseño de programas de interven­ción dentro de prisión y la preparación para la vida en li­bertad (i.e., tercer grado).

Abstract

Although prisonization has been studied in previous lit­erature, the effects of criminological variables on prison adaption and prison social status; and of the latter on psychological adjustment and cognitive skills have not been sufficiently analysed. As for knowing about this, 112 male prison inmates with an age range between 23 and 74 years (M = 40.40, SD = 1.04), 77 (68.8 %) with criminal records (recidivists) serving sentences in a Por­tuguese prison were evaluated in prison adaption, prison social status, psychological adjustment and cognitive skills. The results showed that criminological variables (e.g., family problems) were related with lower levels of adaption to prison. Furthermore, prison inmates exhib­ited a significant worse psychological adjustment than the normative population, and recidivists than primary offenders. Likewise, the results revealed that prison in­mates were characterized in problem solving tasks by adopting an avoidant coping style (i.e., Cognitive avoidance, Acceptance or Resignation, Seeking alternative rewards, Emotional discharge), at the expense of an approach coping style (i.e., Logical analysis). The implications of the results for in-prison intervention programmes design and the preparation for a third-degree life i.e., under parole, are discussed.


Keywords


Adaptación a prisión; Estatus social; Afrontamiento; Ajuste psicológico; Destrezas cognitivas [Adaptation to prison; Social status; Coping; Psychological adjustment; Cognitive skills]

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5944/ap.14.2.20784

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