Atribución de responsabilidad ante la violencia sexual: Efecto del tipo de táctica, el género y el sexismo benévolo [Attribution of responsibility for sexual violence: Effect of type of tactic, gender and benevolent sexism]

Marta Garrido-Macías, Inmaculada Valor-Segura, Francisca Expósito

Abstract


Resumen

La violencia sexual es un problema actual sobre el que se necesita estudio empírico, pues afecta a más del 30 % de las mujeres en sus relaciones con los hombres. El obje­tivo de esta investigación ha sido comprobar el modo en el que el tipo de táctica utilizada para conseguir sexo, el género y el sexismo benévolo influyen en la responsabi­lidad que se le atribuye al agresor. Utilizando una mues­tra de 305 participantes, se presenta un escenario sexual en el contexto de una relación de pareja, en el que se ma­nipula el tipo de táctica utilizada para tener sexo (neutra, persuasión o coerción sexual). Los resultados indican que las personas responsabilizan más al agresor cuando la táctica utilizada es persuasión o coerción sexual, que cuando se utilizan tácticas no violentas (neutra). Además, se comprueba que los hombres con alto sexismo bené­volo culpan menos al agresor solamente cuando éste uti­liza tácticas más sutiles de violencia sexual (persuasión sexual), mientras que este efecto no ocurre en las muje­res. Estos resultados permiten proporcionar un marco teórico sobre el que incidir para establecer los límites de los comportamientos que se consideran aceptables o no en una relación, contribuyendo a su detección y rechazo, así como para considerar su influencia en la toma de de­cisión del ámbito jurídico en los casos de violencia de género.

Abstract

Sexual violence is a current problem that requires em­pirical study, since it affects more than 30 % of women in their relationships with men. The aim of the research has been to verify the way in which the type of tactics used to obtain sex, along with gender and benevolent sexism can have an impact on the responsibility at­tributed to the aggressor. Using a sample of 305 partici­pants, a sexual scenario is presented in a relationship context where the type of tactic used to have sex (neutral, sexual coaxing, or sexual coercion) is manipulated. The results indicate that people attribute more responsibility to the aggressor when the tactic used is sexual coaxing or sexual coercion than when using non-violent (neutral) tactics. In addition, men with high benevolent sexism blame the aggressor less, but only when the subtlest tac­tics of sexual violence (sexual coaxing) are used, whereas this effect does not occur in women. These re­sults provide a theoretical framework for establishing the limits of the behaviours that are considered acceptable (or not) in a relationship, contributing to their detection and having implications for legal decision-making in cases of gender violence.


Keywords


Violencia sexual; Atribución de responsabilidad; Sexismo benévolo; Coerción sexual [Sexual violence; Attribution of responsibility; Benevolent sexism; Sexual coercion]

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5944/ap.14.2.20757

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