Factores de riesgo de violencia filio-parental: Una aproximación con juicio de expertos [Child-to-Parent Violence Risk Factors: An Approach with Expert Judgement]

Ismael Loinaz, Antonio Andrés-Pueyo, Roberto Pereira

Abstract


Resumen

La violencia filio-parental (VFP) es un tipo de violencia familiar, caracterizada por agresiones de distinta índole dirigidas hacia progenitores o personas que ocupen su lu­gar. Este trabajo describe la creación de la primera he­rramienta de evaluación del riesgo de VFP, desarrollada a través de la revisión bibliográfica, la opinión de exper­tos y aplicaciones piloto en contexto clínico. Se analiza­ron 112 respuestas de profesionales sobre la adecuación de 28 factores de riesgo. También se valoró el interés/utilidad/necesidad de la propuesta de una guía para la valoración del riesgo de VFP. Los resultados mostraron un gran acuerdo entre profesionales, así como una valo­ración positiva de la propuesta. Tras la aplicación piloto de la guía en siete casos y la discusión con expertos, se ela­boró la versión final compuesta por 24 factores de riesgo, seis de protección y 15 variables incluidas en una sección inicial. 

Abstract

Child-to-parent violence (CPV), also known as adoles­cent-to-parent abuse (APA), is a type of family violence characterized by different kinds aggressions directed to­wards parents or people in their place. This paper de­scribes the development of the first CPV risk assessment tool, derived from bibliographic review, expert opinion, and pilot applications in clinical context. Responses of 112 professionals about the adequacy of 28 factors as well as the interest/utility/need of the proposal of a risk assessment tool for CPV were analyzed. Results showed a great agreement among professionals, as well as a pos­itive evaluation of the proposal. After the pilot applica­tion of the tool in 7 cases and discussion with experts, the final version was composed of 24 risk factors and 6 pro­tective factors, as well as 15 variables included in an ini­tial section
.


Keywords


Violencia filio-parental; Factores de riesgo; Evaluación del riesgo; Opinión profesional [Child to parent violence; Risk factors; Violence risk assessment; Professional opinion]

References


Aroca, C., Bellver, M. C. y Alba, J. L. (2012). La teoría del aprendizaje social como modelo explicativo de la violencia filio-parental [The Social Learning Theory as Explicative Model of Child-Parent Violence]. Revista Complutense de Educación, 23, 487-511. https://doi.org/10.5209/rev_RCED.2012.v23.n2.40039

Aroca, C., Cánovas, P. y Alba, J. L. (2012). Características de las familias que sufren violencia filio-parental: un estudio de revisión [Characteristics of Families Suffering Parent Abuse: A Literature Review]. Educatio Siglo XXI, 30, 231-254. Recuperado de http://revistas.um.es/educatio/article/viewFile/160801/140811

Aroca, C., Miró, C. y Bellver, M. C. (2013). Los problemas de violencia en los adolescentes. ¿Incapacidad educativa de los progenitores? [The Problems of Violence in Adolescents. Inability of the Parents to Transmit Values?] Educación Social: Revista de Intervención Socioeducativa, 53, 121-136. Recuperado de http://www.raco.cat/index.php/EducacioSocial/article/viewFile/263620/368975

Borum, R., Bartel, P. y Forth, A. (2006). Manual for the Structured Assessment for Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Boxer, P., Gullan, R. L. y Mahoney, A. (2009). Adolescents' physical aggression toward parents in a clinic-referred sample. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 38, 106-116. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374410802575396

Calvete, E. (2008). Justification of violence and grandiosity schemas as predictors of antisocial behavior in adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 1083-1095. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-008-9229-5

Calvete, E., Orue, I. y Gámez-Guadix, M. (2013). Child-to-parent violence: Emotional and behavioral predictors. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28, 755-772. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260512455869

Calvete, E., Orue, I. y Gámez-Guadix, M. (2015). Reciprocal longitudinal associations between substance use and child-to-parent violence in adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 44, 124-133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.07.015

Calvete, E., Orue, I. y Sampedro, R. (2011). Violencia filio-parental en la adolescencia: Características ambientales y personales [Child to Parent Violence in Adolescence: Environmental and Individual Characteristics]. Infancia y Aprendizaje, 34, 349-363. https://doi.org/10.1174/021037011797238577

Castañeda, A., Garrido-Fernández, M. y Lanzarote, M. D. (2012). Menores con conducta de maltrato hacia los progenitores: Un estudio de personalidad y estilos de socialización [Juvenile Offenders who Assault their Parents: A Study of Personality Traits and Parenting Styles]. Revista de Psicología Social, 27(2), 157-167. https://doi.org/10.1174/021347412800337933

Condry, R. y Miles, C. (2014). Adolescent to parent violence: Framing and mapping a hidden problem. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 14, 257-275. https://doi.org/10.1177/1748895813500155

Conroy, M. A. (2012). Assessing juveniles for risk of violence. En E. L. Grigorenko (Ed.), Handbook of Juvenile Forensic Psychology and Psychiatry (pp. 227-238). New York, NY: Springer.

Contreras, L. y Cano, C. (2014). Family profile of young offenders who abuse their parents: A comparison with general offenders and non-offenders. Journal of Family Violence, 29, 901-910. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-014-9637-y

Contreras, L. y Cano, M. C. (2016). Child-to-parent violence: the role of exposure to violence and its relationship to social-cognitive processing. European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, 8(2), 43-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpal.2016.03.003

Contreras, L., Molina, V. y Cano, M. C. (2011). In search of psychosocial variables linked to the recidivism in young offenders. European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, 3, 77-88.

Cottrell, B. (2001). Parent Abuse: The Abuse of Parents by their Teenage Children. Ottawa, ON: Health Canada, Population and Public Health Branch, National Clearinghouse on Family Violence. Recuperado de http://publications.gc.ca/collections/Collection/H72-21-180-2000E.pdf

Cottrell, B. y Monk, P. (2004). Adolescent-to-parent abuse - A qualitative overview of common themes. Journal of Family Issues, 25, 1072-1095. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513x03261330

Cuervo, A. L., Fernández, E. y Rechea, C. (2008). Menores agresores en el hogar [Minor Offenders in the Home]. Boletín Criminológico, 106, 1-4.

Cuervo, A. L. y Rechea, C. (2010). Menores agresores en el ámbito familiar. Un estudio de casos [Minor Offenders in the Family. A Case Study]. Revista de Derecho Penal y Criminología, 33), 353-375. Recuperado de http://e-spacio.uned.es/fez/eserv.php?pid=bibliuned:revistaDerechoPenalyCriminologia-2010-3-5090&dsID=Documento.pdf

Cutrín, O., Gómez-Fraguela, J. A. y Luengo, M. Á. (2015). Peer-group mediation in the relationship between family and juvenile antisocial behavior. European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, 7, 59-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpal.2014.11.005

Douglas, K. S., Hart, S. D., Webster, C. D., Belfrage, H., Guy, L. S. y Wilson, C. M. (2014). Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20, version 3 (HCR-20V3): Development and overview. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 13, 93-108. https://doi.org/10.1080/14999013.2014.906519

Estévez, E., Inglés, C. J., Emler, N. P., Martínez-Monteagudo, M. C. y Torregrosa, M. S. (2012). Análisis de la relación entre la victimización y la violencia escolar: El rol de la reputación antisocial. Psychosocial Intervention, 21, 53-65. https://doi.org/10.5093/in2012v21n1a3

Fiscalía (2010). Circular 1/2010, de 23 de julio, Sobre el tratamiento desde el sistema de justicia juvenil de los malos tratos de los menores contra sus ascendientes [On the Treatment of the Juvenile Justice System of Maltraitment against its Ascendants. Recuperado de http://jurisprudencia.vlex.es/vid/-230985942

Fiscalía (2013). Memoria de la Fiscalía 2012 (Apartado de la Sala de Coordinadora en materia de Menores) [Report of the Prosecutor's Office 2012](Section of the Coordinating Board on Minors) . Recuperado de https://www.fiscal.es

Gámez-Guadix, M. y Calvete, E. (2012). Violencia filioparental y su asociación con la exposición a la violencia marital y la agresión de padres a hijos [Child-to-Parent Violence and its Association with Exposure to Marital Violence and Parent-to-Child Violence]. Psicothema, 24, 277-283. Recuperado de http://www.psicothema.com/psicothema.asp?id=4011

Gamez-Guadix, M., Jaureguizar, J., Almendros, C. y Carrobles, J. A. (2012). Estilos de socialización familiar y violencia de hijos a padres en población española [Parenting Styles and Child to Parent Violence in Spanish Population]. Behavioral Psychology-Psicología Conductual, 20, 585-602.

Ghanizadeh, A. y Jafari, P. (2010). Risk factors of abuse of parents by their ADHD children. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 19, 75-81.

González-Álvarez, M., Gesteira, C., Fernández-Arias, I. y García-Vera, M. P. (2010). Adolescentes que agreden a sus padres. Un análisis descriptivo de los menores agresores [Teens Assaulting their Parents. A Descriptive Analysis of the Minor Aggressors. Psicopatología Clínica, Legal y Forense, 10, 37-53. Recuperado de http://masterforense.com/pdf/2010/2010art3.pdf

González-Álvarez, M., Morán, N. y García-Vera, M. P. (2011). Violencia de hijos a padres: Revisión teórica de las variables clínicas descriptoras de los menores agresores [Violence of Children to Parents: Theoretical Review of the Descriptive Clinical Variables of the Minor Aggressors]. Psicopatología Clínica, Legal y Forense, 11, 101-121. Recuperado de http://masterforense.com/pdf/2011/2011art6.pdf

Guillén, N. Roth, E., Alfaro, A. y Fernández, E. (2015). Youth alcohol drinking behavior: Associated risk and protective factors. Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología y Salud, 6, 53-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rips.2015.03.001

Holt, A. (2012). Researching parent abuse: A critical review of the methods. Social Policy and Society, 11, 289-298. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1474746411000625

Holt, A. (2013). Adolescent-to-Parent Abuse. Bristol, UK: Policy Press.

Hong, J. S., Kral, M. J., Espelage, D. L. y Allen-Meares, P. (2012). The social ecology of adolescent-initiated parent abuse: A review of the literature. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 43, 431-454. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-011-0273-y

Ibabe, I., Arnoso, A. y Elgorriaga, E. (2014a). Behavioral problems and depressive symptomatology as predictors of child-to-parent violence. European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, 6, 53-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpal.2014.06.004

Ibabe, I., Arnoso, A. y Elgorriaga, E. (2014b). The clinical profile of adolescent offenders of child-to-parent violence. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 131, 377-381. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.04.133

Ibabe, I. y Jaureguizar, J. (2011). ¿Hasta qué punto la violencia filio-parental es bidireccional? [¿Hasta qué punto la violencia filio-parental es bidireccional?] Anales de Psicología, 27, 265-277. Recuperado de: http://www.redalyc.org/pdf/167/16720051001.pdf

Ibabe, I., Jaureguizar, J. y Bentler, P. M. (2013). Risk factors for child-to-parent violence. Journal of Family Violence, 28, 523-534. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-013-9512-2

Ibabe, I., Jaureguizar, J. y Díaz, O. (2007). Violencia filio-parental: Conductas violentas de jóvenes hacia sus padres. Vitoria-Gasteiz, España: Servicio Central de Publicaciones del Gobierno Vasco. Recuperado de http://www.jusap.ejgv.euskadi.eus/r47-edukia/es/contenidos/documentacion/violencia_filio_parental/es_vifilpar/adjuntos/Violencia_Filio-Parental.pdf

Izaguirre, A. y Calvete, E. (2017). Exposure to family violence as a predictor of dating violence and child-to-parent aggression in Spanish adolescents. Youth & Society, 49(3), 393-412. https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118X16632138

Kennedy, T. D., Edmonds, W. A., Dann, K. T. J. y Burnett, K. F. (2010). The clinical and adaptive features of young offenders with histories of child-parent violence. Journal of Family Violence, 25, 509-520. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-010-9312-x

Loinaz, I. (2017). Manual de evaluación del riesgo de violencia. Metodología y ámbitos de aplicación [Manual of Evaluation of the Risk of Violence. Methodology and Fields of Application. Madrid, España: Pirámide.

Loinaz, I. y Sánchez, N. (2015). El ciclo victimización-agresión y el maltrato infantil [The Cycle of Victimization-Aggression and Child Abuse]. En I. Loinaz y R. Gallardo (Eds.), Prevención y detección del maltrato infantil (pp. 13-49). Puebla, México: Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de México.

Lozano, S., Estévez, E. y Carballo, J. L. (2013). Factores individuales y familiares de riesgo en casos de violencia filio-parental [Individual and Family Risk Factors in Cases of Filio-Parental Violence]. Documentos de Trabajo Social, 52, 239-254. Recuperado de https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=4703109

Margolin, G. y Baucom, B. R. (2014). Adolescents’ aggression to parents: Longitudinal links with parents’ physical aggression. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 55, 645-651. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.05.008

Martínez, M. L., Estévez, E., Jiménez, T. I. y Velilla, C. (2015). Violencia filio-parental: Principales características, factores de riesgo y claves para la intervención [Child-Parent Violence: Main Characteristics, Risk Factors and Keys to Intervention. Papeles del Psicólogo, 36, 216-223. Recuperado de http://www.papelesdelpsicologo.es/pdf/2615.pdf

Miles, C. y Condry, R. (2016). Adolescent to parent violence: The police response to parents reporting violence from their children. Policing and Society, 26, 804-823. https://doi.org/10.1080/10439463.2014.989158

Pagani, L. S., Tremblay, R. E., Nagin, D., Zoccolillo, M., Vitaro, F. y McDuff, P. (2004). Risk factor models for adolescent verbal and physical aggression toward mothers. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28, 528-537. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650250444000243

Pagani, L. S., Tremblay, R. E., Nagin, D., Zoccolillo, M., Vitaro, F. y McDuff, P. (2009). Risk factor models for adolescent verbal and physical aggression toward fathers. Journal of Family Violence, 24, 173-182.

Pereira, R. (2006). Violencia filio-parental: Un fenómeno emergente [Parental Violence: An Emerging Phenomenon]. Mosaico, 36, 8-9.

Pereira, R. y Bertino, L. (2010). Los hijos que agreden a sus padres. La actitud del profesional de atención primaria [Children who attack their parents. The attitude of the primary care professional]. FMC. Formación Médica Continuada en Atención Primaria, 17(1), 39-47.

Pérez, T. y Pereira, R. (2006). Violencia filio-parental: Revisión de la bibliografía [Parental Violence: Review of Bibliography]. Mosaico, 36, 1-13.

Rico, E., Rosado, J. y Cantón-Cortés, D. (2017). Impulsiveness and child-to-parent violence: The role of aggressor’s sex. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 20. https://doi.org/10.1017/sjp.2017.15

Rodríguez, N. M., González-Álvarez, M. y García-Vera, M. P. (2011). Violencia de hijos a padres: La importancia de la exposición a la violencia interparental y de padres a hijos. Una revisión teórica [Violence of Children to Parents: The Importance of Exposure to Interparental Violence and from Parents to Children. A Theoretical Review. Psicopatología Clínica, Legal y Forense, 11, 123-141. Recuperado de: http://masterforense.com/pdf/2011/2011art7.pdf

Stewart, M., Burns, A. y Leonard, R. (2007). Dark side of the mothering role: Abuse of mothers by adolescent and adult children. Sex Roles, 56(3-4), 183-191. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-006-9148-2

Tew, J. y Nixon, J. (2010). Parent abuse: Opening up a discussion of a complex instance of family power relations. Social Policy and Society, 9, 579-589. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1474746410000291

Tibbitts, C. (1932). Reliability of factors used in predicting success or failure in parole. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 22, 844-853.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5944/ap.14.2.20747

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Faculty of Psychology. Applied Psychology Service (UNED)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.


Attribution-NonCommercial  (CC BY-NC)This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.

 

Accion Psicologica

Applied Psychology Service (SPA), Faculty of Psychology (UNED).

C/ Juan del Rosal nº 10 28040 Madrid.

email: accionpsicologica@psi.uned.es

eISSN: 2255-1271