La comprensión infantil de la emoción en el sistema de cuidado [Children's Understanding of Emotion in the System of Care]

Cristina Sanz Guerra, Purificación Sierra García

Abstract


Resumen

La relación madre-hijo se ha estudiado tradicionalmente desde la perspectiva de la teoría del apego. Pero, además, es un fenómeno psicológico y social al que el niño dota de sentido y que trata de comprender. Para explorar la comprensión infantil de esta dimensión de la relación, hemos entrevistado a 85 niños de entre siete y nueve años me­diante una entrevista semiestructurada con cuatro histo­rias, en las que se relacionaban el Sistema de Apego y el Sistema de Cuidado. El análisis de las respuestas de los niños muestra que el 97 % atribuyen malestar en la ma­dre en relación con la vivencia de amenaza del hijo. Los niños de estas edades poseen ya una comprensión del Sistema de Cuidado de la madre en conexión con el Sis­tema de Apego del hijo. La responsabilidad y la empatía de la madre forman parte de las respuestas de los niños de estas edades como activadores de su comportamiento de cuidado y protección hacia el hijo.  Las representacio­nes de los niños pueden organizarse en niveles de com­prensión cada vez más sofisticados y complejos. Conocer los sentimientos y motivaciones que los niños atribuyen a la madre en su rol de cuidadora principal y la visión in­fantil de las leyes emocionales que rigen las relaciones afectivas madre-hijo, puede ofrecernos nuevas perspecti­vas acerca de cómo se construyen las relaciones de apego y resultar útil en la detección e intervención en apegos no saludables, en ambos miembros de la díada.

 

Abstract

The mother-child relationship has traditionally been stud­ied from the perspective of attachment theory. But in addition, they are a psychological and social phenome­non to which the child gives meaning and tries to under­stand. To explore the child's understanding of this dimen­sion of the relationship, we interviewed 85 children be­tween 7 and 9 years old through a semi-structured inter­view with four stories, in which the Attachment System and the System of Care were related. The analysis of the children's responses shows that 97 % attribute discomfort in the mother in relation to the experience of threat of the child. Children of these ages already have an understand­ing of the Mother's System of Care in connection with the child's attachment system. The responsibility and empathy of the mother are part of the responses of chil­dren of these ages as activators of their behavior of care and protection for the child. Children´s representations can be organized at increasingly sophisticated and com­plex levels of understanding. Knowing the feelings and motivations that children attribute to the mother in her role of primary caregiver and the child's vision of the emotional laws that govern affective mother-child rela­tionships, can offer us new perspectives on how attach­ment relationships are built and be useful in the detection and intervention in unhealthy attachments, in both mem­bers of the dyad.


Keywords


Sistema de Cuidado; Modelo Interno de Trabajo; Apego; Representación Infantil [System of care; Attachment system; Child's understanding; Internal working model]

References


Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1985). Patterns of Infant-Mother Attachments: Antecedents and Effects on Development. Bulletin of The New York Academy of Medicine, 61, 771-791

Bell, D. C. (2010). The Dynamics of Conection; How Evolution and Biology Create Caregiving and Attachment. New York, NY: Lexington Books.

Bell D. C. (2012). Next Steps in Attachment Theory. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 4(4), 275-281. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-2589.2012.00135.x

Bell, D. C. y Richard, A. J. (2000). Caregiving: The Forgotten Element in Attachment. Psychological Inquiry, 11(2), 69-83. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1102_01

Bowlby, J. (1969/1982). Attachment and loss, Vol. I, Attachment (2ª ed.). New York, NY: Basic Books.

Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss, Vol. 2, Separation: Anxiety and Anger (Trad. Cast. La separación afectiva, Buenos Aires, Paidós, 1976). Londres, UK: Hogarth Press

Clarke-Stewart, K. A., Goossens, F. A., Allhusen, V. D. (2001). Measuring Infant-Mother Attachment: Is the Strange Situation Enough? Social Development, 10 (2), 143-168. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9507.00156

Crittenden, P. M. (1998). Dangerous Behavior and Dangerous Contexts: A 35-year Perspective on Research on the Developmental Effects of Child Physical Abuse. En P. K. Trickett y C. J. Schellenbach (Ed), Violence Against Children in the Family and the Community (pp. 11-38). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association

Delius, A., Bovenschen, I. y Spangler, G. (2008). The Inner Working Model as a "theory of attachment": Development during the Preschool Years. Attachment & Human Development, 10(4), 395-414. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616730802461425

Delval, J. (2000). Sobre la naturaleza de los fenómenos sociales. En K. Korta y F. García Madruga (Comps). Palabras. Víctor Sánchez Zavala in memoriam [Words. Víctor Sánchez Zavala in memoriam] (pp. 95-122). Bilbao, España: Servicio editorial de la UPV-EHU.

Delval, J. (2007). Aspectos de la construcción del conocimiento sobre la sociedad [Aspects of the construction of knowledge about society]. Revista de Investigación en Psicología, 10(1), 9-48.

Frijda, N. H. (2008). The Psychologists´ Point of View. En Lewis, M, Haviland-Jones, J. y Feldman, L. Handbook of Emotions (pp. 68-87). Nueva York: Ed. Guilford.

George, C. y Solomon, J. (1996). Respresentational Models of Relationships: Links between Caregiving and Attachment. Infant Mental Health Journal, 17(3) 198-216. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0355(199623)17:3%3C198::AID-IMHJ2%3E3.0.CO;2-L

George, C. y Solomon, J. (2008). The Caregiving Sistem. A Behavioral Sistems Approach to Parenting (2ª ed.). En J. Cassidy y P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of Attachment: Theory, Research and Clinical Application (pp. 833-856). Nueva York, NY: Guilford.

Harris, P. L. (1992). Los niños y las emociones [Childens and emotions]. Madrid, España: Alianza Psicología Minor

Kalish, W. C. y Lawson, C. A. (2008). Development of Social Representations: Early Appretiation on Roles and Deontic Relations. Child Development, 79(3), 577-593.

Main, M. (1991). Metacognitive Knowledge, Metacognitive Monitoring, and Singular (coherent) vs. Multiple (incoherent) Models of Attachment: Some Findings and some Directions for Future Research. En P. Marris, J. Stevenson-Hinde y C. Parkes (Eds.), Attachment Across the Life Cycle (pp. 127-159). Nueva York, NY: Routledge.

Main, M., Kaplan, K. y Cassidy, J. (1985). Security in Infancy, Childhood and Adulthood: A Move to the Level of Respresentation. En I. Bretherton y E. Waters (Eds.), Growing Points in attachment theory and research. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50(209), 66-104. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Mikulincer, M. y Shaver, P. R. (2005). Mental Representations of Attachment Security: Theoretical foundation for a Positive Social Psychology. En M. W. Baldwin (Ed.), Interpersonal cognition (pp. 233-266). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Piaget, J. (1926). El método clínico. Traducción de la introducción de La representación del mundo en el niño. En J. del Delval (Comp.) Lecturas de psicología del niño, vol I [Readings of child psychology]. Madrid, España: Alianza.

Solomon, J. y George, C. (1996). Defining the Caregiving System: Toward a Theory of Caregiving. Infant Mental Health Journal, 17(3), 183-197. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0355(199623)17:3%3C183::AID-IMHJ1%3E3.0.CO;2-Q

Solomon, J., y George, C., (2000). Toward an Integrated Theory of Maternal Caregiving. En J. Osofsky y H.E. Fitzgerald (Eds.), WAIMH Handbook of Infant Mental Health, Vol. III: Parenting and Child Care (pp 323-368). Nueva York, NY: Wiley.

Walsh, T. M., Symons, D. K. y McGrath, P. J. (2004) Relations between Young Children´s Responses to the Depiction of Separation and Pain Experiences. Attachment & Human Development, 6, 53-71.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5944/ap.14.2.19365

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.


Attribution-NonCommercial  (CC BY-NC)This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.

 

Accion Psicologica

Applied Psychology Service (SPA), Faculty of Psychology (UNED).

C/ Juan del Rosal nº 10 28040 Madrid.

email: accionpsicologica@psi.uned.es

eISSN: 2255-1271