Climas motivacionales, motivación autodeterminada, afectos y burnout en deportistas: enfoque multinivel [Motivational Climate, Self-Determined Motivation, Affects, and Burnout in Athletes: A Multilevel Approach]

Adrián E. Barbosa-Luna, José L. Tristán, Inés Tomás, Alejandra González, Jeanette M. López-Walle

Abstract


Resumen

Este estudio tuvo como objetivo poner a prueba un mo­delo de mediación multinivel que examinó las relaciones entre la percepción del clima motivacional generado por los entrenadores a nivel de equipo y los afectos y el burnout a nivel individual, mediados por la motivación autodeterminada. Participaron 745 atletas universitarios de diversos deportes, con edades entre 17 a 28 años (M = 21.46, DT = 2.14) quienes completaron los instrumentos que evaluaban las variables del estudio (PMCSQ-2, SMS-II, PANAS y ABQ). Los resultados mostraron que a nivel individual (nivel intra), la motivación autodeterminada se relacionaba positivamente con el afecto positivo; por el contrario, se relacionaba negativamente con el afecto ne­gativo y las tres dimensiones de burnout. A nivel del equipo (nivel entre), la percepción del clima de implica­ción en la tarea se relacionaba positivamente con la mo­tivación autodeterminada, mientras que el clima de im­plicación en el ego se relacionaba negativamente con la motivación autodeterminada. De manera similar, la mo­tivación autodeterminada se relacionaba positivamente con el afecto positivo y negativamente el afecto nega­tivo, así como con las tres dimensiones del burnout. Tanto el clima de implicación en la tarea como el de im­plicación en el ego mostraron un efecto indirecto sobre el bienestar y el malestar a través de la motivación autode­terminada. Se sugiere a los entrenadores generar un clima de implicación en la tarea para potenciar el bie­nestar de los deportistas. 

 

Abstract

This study aimed to test a multilevel mediation model that examined the relationship between the per­ceived motivational climate created by coaches at team level and the affects and burnout at individual level, as me­diated by the self-determined motivation. Participants were 745 college athletes from various sports, aged 17 to 28 years old (M = 21.46, DT = 2.14) who completed the instruments that evaluated the study variables (PMCSQ-2, SMS-II, PANAS, and ABQ). The results showed that at the within-team level, self-determined motivation was positively related to positive affect; on the contrary, was negatively related to negative affect and three dimen­sions of burnout. At the between-team level, the percep­tion of the task-involving climate was positively related to self-determined motivation, while the ego-involving climate was negatively related to self-determined moti­vation. Similarly, self-determined motivation was positi­vely related to positive affect and negatively negative af­fect, as well as to the three dimensions of burnout. Both the task-involving climate and ego-involving climates showed an indirect effect on well-being and discomfort through self-determined motivation. It is suggested that coaches generate a task-involving climate to promote the well-being of athletes. 


Keywords


metas de logro; auto-determinación; bienestar; malestar; deporte universitario [achievement goal; self-determination; well-being; ill-being; college sports]

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5944/ap.14.1.19266

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