Influence of reaction time and movement in the performance of football referees [Influencia del tiempo de reacción y de movimiento en el rendimiento de árbitros de fútbol]

Ricardo De-La_Vega, Daniel Carrasquilla, Enrique Ortiz, Roberto Ruiz, Manuel Armenteros

Abstract


Abstract

The primary objective of this research is to study the re­lationship between reaction time (RT) and movement time (MT) in a sample of 121 football referees. Assess­ment has been performed using an objective computer­ised test (RT, Vienna Test SystemÓ), with regard to the average score obtained for refereeing performance over the season (RAR in Spanish). To perform the analysis, the following variables have been considered: a) Level refereed (2 levels); b) Age (3 levels); and c) Experience (4 levels). The hypothesis states that: (i) The higher the level refereeing at, better results are expected in RT and MT; (ii) The older the referee, the greater the expected value in RT and MT; (iii) The more experienced the ref­eree, the lower the score expected in RT and MT; and (iv) It is expected that there will be a negative correlation between the RAR and the RT and MT scores. The results show that: (i) RT and MT do not differentiate between semi-professionals and amateur referees; (ii) Only the older group has differences in line with the proposed hy­pothesis; (iii) There are no differences in RT and MT re­garding refereeing experience; (iv) The RT scores, tak­ing the optimal transformation parameters, show signifi­cant correlations with the RAR (r = -.271, p = .020); but not regarding the MT and RAR. Future research should take a deeper look into the results obtained, including professional referees in the comparisons, as well as in­vestigating the effects of other psychological variables in refereeing performance.

 

Resumen

El objetivo prioritario de esta investigación se centra en estudiar, en una muestra de 121 árbitros de fútbol, la re­lación que existe entre su tiempo de reacción (TR) y de movimiento (TM) -evaluado mediante la realización de una prueba objetiva computerizada (RT, Vienna Test SystemÓ)-, respecto a la puntuación promedio obtenida durante la temporada sobre su rendimiento arbitral real (RAR). Para realizar los análisis se han considerado las siguientes variables: (a) Categoría arbitral (2 niveles); (b) Edad (3 niveles); y (c) Experiencia (4 niveles). Las hipótesis establecen que: (i) A mayor categoría arbitral, se esperan mejores resultados en TR y TM; (ii) A mayor edad, se esperan obtener mayores valores en TR y TM; (iii) A mayor experiencia, se esperan menores puntua­ciones en TR y TM; y (iv) Se espera que exista correla­ción negativa entre RAR, con sus puntuaciones en RT y en TM. Los resultados muestran que: (i) TR y el TM no permiten discriminar entre los árbitros semi-profesiona­les y los amateurs; (ii) Sólo el grupo de más edad tiene diferencias en la línea de la hipótesis planteada; (iii) No se producen diferencias en RT y TM en función de las experiencias arbitrales; y (iv) Las puntuaciones en RT, tomando el parámetro óptimo de transformación, mues­tran correlaciones significativas con RAR (r = -.271, p = .020); no así respecto a TM y RAR. Futuras investiga­ciones deben profundizar en los resultados obtenidos, añadiendo en las comparaciones a los árbitros profesio­nales, además de explorar el efecto de otras variables psicológicas en el rendimiento arbitral. 


Keywords


reaction time; movement time; Vienna Test System; refereeing; football [tiempo de reacción; tiempo de movimiento; Vienna Test System; arbitraje; fútbol]

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5944/ap.14.1.19251

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