Traumatic events and psychopathological symptoms in university students

Erika Yohanna Bedoya, Sara Ruíz, Alexander Córdoba, Gabriel David Rendón, Gabriel Ignacio Ruíz, Germán David Gómez

Resumen


Abstract: A non-experimental, cross-sectional and correlational study that aims to analyze the relationship between traumatic events and psychopathological symptoms in 286 university students (76.6% women and 23.4% men) between 18 and 59 years (M = 24.03; SD 7.14) by non-probabilistic convenience sampling. A large part of the sample did not present any traumatic event and those who did showed levels of neutral and/or negative affectation. The most frequent events are the death of a loved one, robbery or assault, divorce of the parents, nervous breakdown, school failure, rejection or failure in a relationship. The least reported events are severe or chronic illness, imprisonment or torture, loss of a child or second marriage. In general, the sample presented low scores in all the psychopathological dimensions. All the variables are related in a statistically significant way, which supports the interaction between traumatic events and various psychopathological symptoms.

Keywords: Traumatic events; psychopathological symptoms; anxiety; schizotypy; university students.

Eventos traumáticos y síntomas psicopatológicos en estudiantes universitarios

Resumen: Estudio no experimental, transversal y correlacional, que busca  analizar la relación entre eventos traumáticos y síntomas psicopatológicos en 286 estudiantes universitarios (76.6% mujeres y 23.4% hombres) entre 18 y 59 años (= 24.03; DE. 7.14) mediante muestreo por conveniencia. Gran parte de la muestra no presentó ningún evento traumático y quienes si los presentaron manifestaron niveles de afectación neutra y/o algo negativa. Los eventos más frecuentes son muerte de un ser querido, robo o asalto, divorcio de los padres, ataque de nervios, fracaso escolar, rechazo o fracaso en una relación. Los eventos menos reportados son enfermedad grave o crónica, encarcelamiento o tortura, pérdida de un hijo o segundo matrimonio. En general la muestra presentó puntuaciones bajas en todas las dimensiones psicopatológicas. Todas las variables se relacionan de manera estadísticamente significativa, con lo cual se soporta la interacción entre eventos traumáticos y diversos síntomas psicopatológicos.

Palabras Clave: Eventos traumáticos; síntomas psicopatológicos; ansiedad; esquizotipia; estudiantes universitarios.


Palabras clave


Traumatic events; psychopathological symptoms; anxiety; schizotypy; university students.

Texto completo:

PDF (English)

Referencias


Aas, M., Steen, N. E., Aminoff, S.R., Lorentzen, S., Sundet, K., Andreassen, O. A., & Melle, I. (2012). Is cognitive impairment following early life stress in severe mental disorders based on specific or general cognitive functioning? Psychiatry Research, 198(3), 495-500. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2011.12.045

Agorastos, A., Pittman, J. O., Angkaw, A. C., Nievergelt, C. M., Hansen, C. J., Aversa, L. H.,… Baker, D. G. (2014). The cumulative effect of different childhood trauma types on self-reported symptoms of adult male depression and PTSD, substance abuse and health- related quality of life in a large active-duty military cohort. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 58, 46-54. doi: 10.1016/ j.jpsychires.014.07.014

Alvarez, M. J., Roura, P., Oses, A., Foguet, Q., Sola, J., & Arrufat, F. X. (2011). Prevalence and clinical impact of childhood trauma in patients with severe mental disorders. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 199(3), 156-161. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e31820c751c.

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596

Asselmann, E., Wittchen, H. U., Lieb, R., & Beesdo‐Baum, K. (2018) Sociodemographic, clinical, and functional long term outcomes in adolescents and young adults with mental disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 137, 6-17. doi: 10.1111/acps.12792

Barzilay, R., Calkins, M., Moore, T., Wolf, D., Satterthwaite, T., Cobb Scott, J., . . . Gur, R. (2019). Association between traumatic stress load, psychopathology, and cognition in the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort. Psychological Medicine, 49(2), 325-334. doi:10.1017/S0033291718000880

Bedoya, E. (2015). El estilo de apego adulto como moderador de la asociación entre trauma y experiencias pseudo-psicóticas. Revista Estudios Sociohumanísticos. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas, Universidad de Santander – UDES, 1, 47-60.

Berzenski, S. R. & Yates, T. M. (2011). Classes and consequences of multiple maltreatment: a person-centered analysis. Child Maltreatment, 16, 250-261. doi:10.1177/1077559511428353.

Brietzke, E., Kauer-Sant’anna, M., Jackowski, A., Grassi-Oliveira, R., Bucker, J., Zugman, A.,…Affonseca Bressan, R. (2012). Impact of childhood stress on psychopathology. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 34, 480-488. doi: 10.1016/j.rbp.2012.04.009

Carr, C. P., Martins, C. P., Stingel, A. M., Lembruber, V. B., & Juruena, M. F. (2013). The role of early life stress in adult psychiatric disorders: A systematic review according to childhood trauma subtypes. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 201(12), 1007-1020. doi:10.1097/ NMD.0000000000000049

Chu, A. T. & Lieberman, A. F. (2010). Clinical implications of traumatic stress from birth to age five. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 469-494. doi: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.121208.131204.

Chu, D. A., Williams, L.M., Harris, A.W., Bryant, R. A., & Gatt, J. M. (2013). Early life trauma predicts self-reported levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms in nonclinical community adults: Relative contributions of early life stressor types and adult trauma exposure. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 47(1), 23-32. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.08.006.

Daalman, K., Diederen, K., Derks, E., Van Lutterveld, R., Kahn, R., & Sommer, I. (2012). Childhood trauma and auditory verbal hallucinations. Psychological Medicine, 42(12), 2475-2484. doi:10.1017/S0033291712000761

Dell’Osso, L., Lorenzi, P., & Carpita, B. (2019). The neurodevelopmental continuum towards a neurodevelopmental gradient hypothesis. Journal of Psychopathology, 25,179-182.

Derogatis, L. R. (1977). SCL-90-R: Administration, Scoring & Procedures. Manual II. Clinical Psychometric Research.

Etain, B., Lajnef, M., Henry, C., Aubin, V., Azorin, J. M., Bellivier, F.,…FACE-BD Clinical Coordinating Center (FondaMental Foundation). (2017). Childhood trauma, dimensions of psychopathology and the clinical expression of bipolar disorders: A pathway analysis. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 95, 37-45. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2017.07.013. hal-01760382

Evans, G. W., Li, D., & Whipple, S. S. (2013). Cumulative risk and child development. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 1342–1396. doi: 10.1037/a0031808.

Falukozi, E. & Addington, J. (2012). Impact of trauma on attenuated psychotic symptoms. Psychosis, 4(3), 203-212. Doi: 10.1080/17522439.2011.62686712

Fink, D. S. & Galea, S. (2015). Life course epidemiology of trauma and related psychopathology in civilian populations. Current Psychiatry Reports, 17(5), 566. doi:10.1007/s11920-015-0566-0.

Fischer, S., Dölitzsch, C., Schmeck, K., Fegert, J. M., & Schmida, M. (2016). Interpersonal trauma and associated psychopathology in girls and boys living in residential care. Children and Youth Services Review, 67, 203-211. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2016.06.013

Fonseca-Pedrero, E., Fumero, A., Paino, M., de Miguel, A., Ortuño-Sierra, J., Lemos Giraldez, S., & Muñiz, J. (2014). Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire: New sources of validity evidence in college students. Psychiatry Research, 219, 214-220. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.04.054

Fonseca-Pedrero, E., Paino, M., Lemos-Giráldez, S., & Muñiz, J. (2012). Validación de la Escala para la Evaluación Comunitaria de las Experiencias Psíquicas-42 (CAPE-42) en universitarios y pacientes con psicosis. Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría, 40(4), 169-176.

Freeman, D., Thompson, C., Vorontsova, N., Dunn, G., Carter, L. A., Garety, P., . . . Ehlers, A. (2013). Paranoia and posttraumatic stress disorder in the months after a physical assault: A longitudinal study examining shared and differential predictors. Psychological Medicine, 43, 2673–2684. doi:10.1017/S003329171300038X

González de Rivera, J. L., Derogatis, L. R., de las Cuevas, C., Gracia Marco, R., Rodríguez-Pulido, F., Henry-Benitez, M., & Monterrey, A. L. (1989). The Spanish version of the CSL-90-R. Normative data in the general population. Clinical Psychometric Research, Towson.

Groen, R. N., Wichers, M., Wigman, J. T. W., & Hartman, C. A. (2019). Specificity of psychopathology across levels of severity: a transdiagnostic network analysis. Scientific Reports, 9, 18298. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-54801-y

Hagan, M. J., Sulik, M. J., & Lieberman, A. F. (2016). Traumatic life events and psychopathology in a high risk, ethnically diverse sample of young children: A person-centered approach. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44, 833-844. doi: 10.1007/s10802-015-0078-8.

Herman, J. L. (1992). Trauma and recovery: The aftermath of violence-From domestic to political terror. New York: Basic Books.

Houston, J. E., Shevlin, M., Adamson, G., & Murphy, J. (2011). A person-centred approach to modelling population experiences of trauma and mental illness. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 46(2), 149. doi: 10.1007/s00127-009-0176-4

Karam, E. G., Friedman, M. J., Hill, E. D., Kessler, R. C., McLaughlin, K. A., Petukhova, M.,… Koenen, K. C. (2014). Cumulative traumas and risk thresholds: 12-month PTSD in the World Mental Health (WMH) surveys. Depression and anxiety, 31(2), 130-142. doi: 10.1002/da.22169

Kessler, R., McLaughlin, K., Green, J., Gruber, M., Sampson, N., Zaslavsky, A., . . . Williams, D. (2010). Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. British Journal of Psychiatry, 197(5), 378-385. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.110.080499

Keyes, K. M., Eaton, N. R., Krueger, R. F., McLaughlin, K. A., Wall, M. M., Grant, B. F., & Hasin, D. S. (2012). Childhood maltreatment and the structure of common psychiatric disorders. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 200(2), 107-115. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.111.093062.

Keyes, K. M., McLaughlin, K. A., Demmer, R. T., Cerda, M., Koenen, K. C., Uddin, M., & Galea, S. (2013). Potentially traumatic events and the risk of six physical health conditions in a population-based sample. Depression and Anxiety, 30(5), 451-460. doi:10.1002/da.22090

Kira, I. A., Ashby, J. S., Odenat, L., & Lewandowsky, L. (2013). The mental health effects of torture trauma and its severity: A Replication and Extension. Psychology, 4(5), 472-482. doi:10.4236/psych.2013.45067

Kira, I., Lewandowski, L., Templin, T., Ramaswamy, V., Ozkan, V., & Mohanesh, J. (2008). Measuring cumulative trauma dose, types, and profiles using a development-based taxonomy of traumas. Traumatology, 14(2), 62 – 87. doi:10.1177/1534765608319324

Kleim, B., Ehlers, A., & Glucksman, E. (2012). Investigating cognitive pathways to psychopathology: Predicting depression and posttraumatic stress disorder from early responses after assault. Psychological Trauma, 4, 527-537. doi:10.1037/a0027006

Landolt, M. A., Schnyder, U., Maier, T., Schoenbucher, V., & Mohler-Kuo, M. (2013). Trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescents: A national survey in Switzerland. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26(2), 209-216. doi:10.1002/jts.21794

Lieberman, A., Chu, A., Van Horn, P., & Harris, W. (2011). Trauma in early childhood: Empirical evidence and clinical implications. Development and Psychopathology, 23(2), 397-410. doi:10.1017/S0954579411000137

Luoni, C., Agosti, M., Crugnola, S., Rossi, G., & Termine, C. (2018). Psychopathology, dissociation and somatic symptoms in adolescents who were exposed to traumatic experiences. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 2390. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02390

Mccrory, E., De Brito, S. A., & Viding, E. (2011). The impact of childhood maltreatment: a review of neurobiological and genetic factors. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 2, 1-14, doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2011.00048.

McLaughlin, K. A., Koenen, K. C., Hill, E. D., Petukhova, M., Sampson, N. A., Zaslavsky, A. M., & Kessler, R. C. (2013). Trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder in a national sample of adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(8), 815–830.e14. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2013.05.011

McLaughlin, K. A. & Lambert, H. K. (2017). Child trauma exposure and psychopathology: Mechanisms of risk and resilience. Current Opinion in Psychology, 14, 29-34. doi:10.1016/j.copsyc.2016.10.004.

McLaughlin, K. A. & Sheridan, M. A. (2016). Beyond cumulative risk: A dimensional approach to childhood adversity. Current directions in psychological science, 25(4), 239–245. doi: 10.1177/0963721416655883

McLaughlin, K. A., Sheridan, M. A., & Lambert, H. K. (2014). Childhood adversity and neural development: Deprivation and threat as distinct dimensions of early experience. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 47, 578-591. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.10.012

Niwa, M., Jaaro-Peled, H., Tankou, S., Seshadri, S., Hikida, T., Matsumoto, Y., … Sawa, A. (2013). Adolescent stress–induced epigenetic control of dopaminergic neurons via glucocorticoids. Science, 339, 335-339. doi: 10.1126/science.1226931.

Ordóñez-Camblor, N., Lemos-Giráldez, S., Paino, M., Fonseca-Pedrero, E., García-Álvarez, L., y Pizarro-Ruiz, J. P. (2014). Relación entre psicosis y experiencias traumáticas tempranas. Anuario de Psicología/The UB Journal of Psychology, 44(3), 283-294.

Ordóñez-Camblor, N., Fonseca-Pedrero, E., Paino, M., García-Álvarez, L., Pizarro-Ruiz, J. P., y Lemos-Giráldez, S. (2016). Evaluación de experiencias traumáticas tempranas en adultos. Papeles del Psicólogo, 37(1), 36-44.

Raine, A. (1991). The SPQ: A scale for the assessment of schizotypal personality based on DSM-III-R criteria. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 17, 555-564. doi:10.1093/schbul/17.4.555

Robles, M. E., Badosa, J. M., Roig, A., Pina, B., & Feixas Viaplana, G. (2009). La evaluación del estrés y del trauma: Presentación de la versión española de la escala de trauma acumulativo (CTS). Revista de psicoterapia, 20(80), 89-104.

Sala, R., Goldstein, B. I., Wang, S., & Blanco, C. (2014). Childhood maltreatment and the course of bipolar disorders among adults: Epidemiologic evidence of dose response effects. Journal of Affective Disorders, 165, 74-80. doi: 10.1016/ j.jad.2014.04.035.

Schauer, M., Neuner, F., & Elbert, T. (2011). Narrative Exposure Therapy. A short-term treatment for traumatic stress disorders. 2nd revised and expanded edition. Canadá: Hogrefe. ISBN 978-0-88937-388-4

Seidenfaden, D., Knorr, U., Greisen Soendergaard, M., Enghusen Poulsen, H., Fink-Jensen, A., Balslev Jorgensen, M., & Jorgensen, A. (2017). The relationship between self-reported childhood adversities, adulthood psychopathology and psychological stress markers in patients with schizophrenia. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 72, 48-55. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2016.09.009

Sheffield, J. M., Williams, L. E., Blackford, J. U., & Heckers, S. (2013). Childhood sexual abuse increases risk of auditory hallucinations in psychotic disorders. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 54, 1098-104. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.05.013.

Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Lushene, R. E. (1982). Cuestionario de Ansiedad Estado/Rasgo. Madrid: TEA.

Tran The, J. (2018). The Continuum between Normal and Pathological in Psychopathology: Freud, Canguilhem and Neurosciences. Research in Psychoanalysis, 26(2), 154-163. doi:10.3917/rep1.026.0154a.

Trauelsen, A. M., Bendall, S., Jansen, J. E., Nielsen, H. L., Pedersen, M. B., Trier, C. H.,… Simonsen, E. (2015). Childhood adversity specificity and dose–response effect in non-affective first-episode psychosis. Schizophrenia Research, 165, 52-59, doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2015.03.014.

Trickey, D., Siddaway, A. P., Meiser-Stedman, R., Serpell, L., & Field, A. P. (2012). A meta-analysis of risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents. Clinical Psychology Review, 32, 122-138. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2011.12.001

Van Winkel, R., Van Nierop, M., Myin-Germeys, I., & van Os, J. (2013). Childhood trauma as a cause of psychosis: linking genes, psychology, and biology. Psychiatry, 58, 44-51. doi: 10.1177/070674371305800109

Varese, F., Smeets, F., Drukker, M., Lieverse, R., Lataster, T., Viechtbauer, W.,…Bentall, R. P. (2012). Childhood adversities increase the risk of psychosis: a meta-analysis of patient-control, prospective- and cross-sectional cohort studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 38(4), 661-671. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbs050

Waikamp, V., & Barcellos Serralta, F. (2018). Repercussions of trauma in childhood in psychopathology of adult life. Ciencias Psicológicas,12(1), 137-144. doi: 10.22235/cp.v12i1.1603

Walker, S. P., Wachs, T. D., Grantham-McGregor, S., Black, M. M., Nelson, C. A., Huffman, S. L.,…Richter, L. (2011). Inequality in early childhood: risk and protective factors for early child development. Lancet, 378(9799), 1325-1338. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60555-2.

Wilker, S., Kleim, B., Geiling, A., Pfeiffer, A., Elbert, T., & Kolassa, I. T. (2017). Mental defeat and cumulative trauma experiences predict trauma-related psychopathology: Evidence from a postconflict population in Northern Uganda. Clinical Psychological Science, 5(6), 974-984. doi: 10.1177/2167702617719946

Zarrella, I., Russolillo, L. A., Caviglia, G., & Perrella, R. (2017). Continuity and discontinuity between psychopathology of childhood and adulthood: A review on retrospective and prospective studies. Research in Psychotherapy: Psychopathology, Process and Outcome, 20(2), 101-109. doi: 10.4081/ripppo.2017.248




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5944/rppc.25786

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.


Licencia Creative Commons
Esta obra está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivar 4.0 Internacional.