Governance of the Spanish dual vocational training: between the lack of coordination and the lack of objectives

Pablo Sanz de Miguel


Spain is currently developing a dual Vocational Education Training (VET), which is represented as an attractive political option to improve the transition of young people into the employment system and adapt their competences to the employers’ demands. In this context, attention should be drawn to the issue of its governance structures. Governance structures ensure the efficiency and success of dual VET systems that require the coordination of activities of collective actors and the closer involvement of some agents such as companies. This article provides some analytical dimensions to understand and classify dual VET systems. Then it analyses through these dimensions the emergent dual VET system of Spain, which is compared with the cases of Denmark and Germany. It is, however, an asymmetric comparison, because Denmark and Germany are used as contrasting cases with the Spanish case, which is analysed more extensively through a normative analysis and a filed work based on focus groups. The article shows that there is room for improvement for the emerging Spanish dual vocational training system. It would require a more coherent and consistent legal framework, a substantial improvement in terms of coordination of the different administrations and actors involved, a reinforced role of employees’ representatives and more precise definition of goals to be attained.


dual vocational training; governance; Spain; legal framework consistency; participation; agency rationality


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