Del carbón al conocimiento: Una historia de las políticas de FP en la Unión Europea

Carlos de Olagüe Smithson

Resumen


El Tratado de Paris (ECSC, 1951) fundó en 1951 la Comunidad Europea del Carbón y del Acero. Este primer paso fue seguido por el Tratado de Roma, que creó en 1957 la Comunidad Económica Europea. En el Tratado se afirma que el objetivo esencial de sus esfuerzos es la mejora constante de las condiciones de vida y del trabajo de los europeos. En 1963 se redactan los 10 principios para una política común en formación profesional y una de las consecuencias es la creación, en 1975, del Centro Europeo para el Desarrollo de la Formación Profesional, European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training – Cedefop.
A finales de los años 80, comienzan las acciones europeas que van fomentar las acciones transnacionales mediante movilidades en formación profesional. En 1987, se adopta ERASMUS y entre los años 1998 y 1994, se PETRA, EUROTECNET y FORCE, para fomentar la formación profesional. Al terminar estos programas, se unen las acciones de movilidades de formación profesional durante 1995 y 2006 en los programas LEONARDO. LEONARDO pasa a formar parte del Programa de Aprendizaje Permanente (PAP), en el periodo 2007-2013 y a integrarse definitivamente en el conjunto de acciones para la movilidad educativa en Erasmus+, durante el periodo actual 2014-2020.
Según la propuesta del año 2000 en la Agenda de Lisboa que se ha ratificado en las propuestas para el Horizonte 2020, Europa tiene actualmente el objetivo estratégico de convertirse en una economía basada en el conocimiento. El objetivo de la Europa del conocimiento, está presente en las declaraciones para la cooperación en educación de Bologna, 1999 y Copenhague, 2002. Los objetivos de la declaración de Copenhague, enfocada en la formación profesional, están lejos de conseguirse, ya que actualmente existen aún muchas diferencias entre los estudios de FP ofrecidos por los países de la Unión Europea.


Palabras clave


Formación profesional; FP; Europa; Unión Europea; legislación; Declaración de Copenhagen; EQF; EQAVET; ECVET; ECTS; Erasmus; Leonardo

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Referencias


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5944/reec.29.2017.17532

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