Education under the shadow in Southern European countries. Implications for equity

Ariadne Runte-Geidel

Abstract


Nowadays most educational research focuses on formal education. However it is gradually recognizing the existence of a parallel education system that accompanies the formal system as if was its own shadow. The shadow education is a system based on the laws of the market, still poorly regulated and under-researched. This comparative study aims to determine the prevalence of shadow education in Spain and countries in its geographical and cultural context, also examine their implications in the different countries studied. Analyzes carried out show high rates of use of shadow education in all countries studied and similarities in the effects on social equity. The findings point to the need for regulation of the sector and infer about problems in formal systems as the possible cause of the high rates of shadow education are found.


Keywords


Shadow Education; Private Tutoring; Comparative Education; Equity



DOI: https://doi.org/10.5944/reec.25.2015.14789

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2015 Revista Española de Educación Comparada

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

  

Revista Española de Educación Comparada (REEC)

Faculty of Education. UNED. 
c/ Juan del Rosal, 14
28040 - MADRID (Spain) 
Phone number: +34 654 73 1122
E-mail: reec@edu.uned.es

 

 



ISSN (printed version): 1137-8654
ISSN (electronic version): 2174-5382
Legal Deposit: M.38499-1995