Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe <table border="0" width="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" align="left"> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" width="227"><img src="http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/management/settings/context//public/site/images/acanales/PORTADA_14_50.jpg" alt="" /> </td> <td valign="top" width="57"> <p><em> </em></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="530"> <p><em>Historia y Memoria de la Educación</em> is the journal of the Spanish Society of History of Education (<a href="http://sedhe.es/">SEDHE</a>) </p> <p><em>Historia y Memoria de la Educación</em> publishes research articles, bibliographic essays, reviews and other collaborations pertaining to the realm of the History of Education. <em> </em></p> <p>Manuscripts submitted to <em>Historia y Memoria de la Educación</em> for publication must meet the criteria regarding academic rigor, depth, originality, and specialization that are to be expected from a scientific-academic journal. They should also constitute a relevant, meaningful contribution to the field of the History of Education. </p> <p>All manuscripts published in the journal <em>Historia y Memoria de la Educación</em> will be previously peer reviewed by two external referees, in accordance with the double-blinded system.</p> <p><em>Historia y Memoria de la Educación</em> is published on a semi-annual basis by the Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED) </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> <img src="http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/management/settings/context//public/site/images/acanales/SCOPUS1.jpg" alt="" /> </p> <p> <img src="http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/management/settings/context//public/site/images/acanales/ESCI_702.jpg" alt="" width="147" height="146" /></p> <p><img src="http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/management/settings/context/undefined" /></p> <p> </p> </td> <td valign="top" width="321"> <p><em> </em></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td valign="top" width="227"> <p> </p> </td> <td valign="top" width="57"> <p><em> </em></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="530"> <p><em> </em></p> </td> <td valign="top" width="321"> <p><em> </em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> UNED en-US Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2444-0043 <p>Authors who publish in <em>Historia y Memoria de la Educación</em> agree to the following terms:</p><ul><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ul> Introduction: 50 years after the General Education Act of 1970 http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/30313 <p>The commemorative opportunity is only a circumstance that prompts to investigate the General Education Act (LGE) of 1970 fifty years after its approval. Another more essential reason invites its study: to investigate with new analyzes and new perspectives on what the LGE meant for the modernization of the country and for the transition between Franco's education and constitutional education. This requires examining the precedents of the 1970 Law and paying attention to the place that the LGE has occupied in educational historiography, in which an evolution towards current historiographic trends is visible. In these highlights the study of international influences in the process of educational modernization, the different iconographic discourses with which the LGE is represented, the protagonism of some of its traditional actors, the rereading of timeless themes present in the Law, and the debates that this generates in the collective memory. These questions are addressed here from the historian's workshop, which are enriched on this occasion with testimonies of individual memories, protagonists in the gestation, development and application of the 1970 Law.</p> Juan Manuel Fernández Soria Diego Sevilla Merino Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 14 11 21 10.5944/hme.14.2021.30313 The General Education Act of 1970, a law for the modernization of Spain http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/30034 The article aims to examine aspects that help to better understand the General Education Act of 1970 by analyzing the factors that made it a Law for the modernization of Spain. The defining feature of the Law was the ambition with which it sought to modernize the educational system; hence, we focus on the concept of «modernization» as well as its precedents and the modernizing axes contained in the Law. We also look at the socio-economic and political context that help to explain its creation. Given the law’s importance, the article pays special attention to the obstacles and resistance that made its genesis and application so difficult, as well as the controversies that have arisen from the reform it promoted. Finally, by way of discussion, an assessment of the law is made taking into account the aspects that make up the concept of “modernization”. Juan Manuel Fernández Soria Diego Sevilla Merino Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 14 23 68 10.5944/hme.14.2021.30034 The General Education Act and the Pedagogy. Recovering and sign http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/28782 <p>This paper undertakes a historical overview of the pedagogical considerations and references that characterize the basic educational reform in Spain in 1970. To do so, the text offers a description and interpretation of technical, political and legal documentation. Additionally, it clarifies the contexts, orientations, innovations and shortcomings of the legislation, known as the Villar Palasi law. Basically, the author attempts to demonstrate the characteristics of the scientific rationality or technical model of the law and its reform. The article also addresses the lack of agreement between the pedagogy being defended, the social and cultural context, and the specific policies that needed to be introduced in order for the reform to achieve its objectives. And finally, this work tries to clarify the significance of this General Education Act in the educational history of Spain.</p> Alejandro Mayordomo Pérez Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 14 69 110 10.5944/hme.14.2021.28782 Villar Palasí: about technocracy and school management http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/28184 <p>University Professor José Luis Villar Palasí took charge of the Ministry of Science and Education in April 1968, after being nominated by the technocratic sector of the Government, with the political mission and personal conviction of reshaping the organisational structures of education in an attempt to stem the increasing unrest at universities. Nonetheless, he soon came to learn that the Spanish educational system as it stood required a complete renovation if it was to join the ranks of other advanced educational systems in the last quarter of the 20th century. In order to complete this task he recruited a team of qualified technocrats, most of them having independent political views and associations with international agencies and institutions. This ministerial team carried out a diagnosis of the imbalances and contradiction of the educational system at the time and then put forward a proposal for an educational reform, laid out in the so called Libro blanco (White Book). This document would become the foundational plan for the new General Education Act of 1970. However, regarding the matter of academic management, the wording of the Law deviated from the proposals made in Libro blanco, suppressing the Board of Directors. This work reflects on the ideological and political circumstances of the educational reform and Minister Villar Palasí himself. We also attempt to provide some clues as to the causes that led to the abolition of the Corps of Directors.</p> Aurelio González Bertolín José Roberto Sanz Ponce Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 14 111 141 10.5944/hme.14.2021.28184 The General Education Act and the Church: Agreements and disagreements http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/29127 <p>The importance and influence that the Catholic Church has had on Education in Spain over the centuries is well known, as is the fact that there have periodically been sectors that have questioned its role in education. The objective of this article is to examine the position of the Church, especially the ecclesiastical hierarchy, with regard to the General Education Act approved on August 4, 1970 and its subsequent development. We will first look at the Church’s thoughts about the changes to come and the need for them, as well as what it considered to be the turning points. We will analyze the dichotomy between state and non-state education and the issue of free education that arises, and how its development would prove definitive in the change of attitude adopted by the Church. Finally, we will refer to the different alternatives to the Law that were proposed, including those involving non-state education and education by the Church, which we will focus special attention on. To do this, we will resort, wherever possible, to original sources, such as the reports emanating from the Episcopal Commission for Teaching and Religious Education, which was in charge of reporting the Church's position on educational issues and was very active during these years as well as other publications of the time.</p> Isabel Grana Gil Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 14 143 175 10.5944/hme.14.2021.29127 International Support for Educational Reform in Spain http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/28387 <p>In the 1960s, an international debate emerged on the role of education in the worldwide changes taking place in the political, social and economic sphere. Multilateral agencies such as the OECD and UNESCO played an important role in this process. Inspired by some of the central tenets of modernization and human capital theories, these organizations sought to steer the transitions from “traditional societies” to “modern” ones. In Franco’s Spain, this process of modernization was led by the technocratic sectors of the dictatorship, who aspired to become the agents of a project of change controlled from the state apparatus. International organizations actively participated in the analysis of the Spanish educational system, and recommendeding measures to bring it into line with the needs of economic development. The corollary of this work was their support for the 1970 General Education Law, which also enjoyed the endorsement of some of the main foreign allies of the Franco regime, such as the United States, the World Bank and the Ford Foundation. This support took the form of advice, funding, specialist training and educational assistance. The article addresses this whole process. It examines the efforts of various international actors and their involvement in the modernization of education in Spain as a step towards convergence with the Western model.</p> Lorenzo Delgado Óscar J. Martín Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 14 177 208 10.5944/hme.14.2021.28387 UNESCO and the Ley General de Educación: the influence of International Organizations arround educational modernization on the Francoism http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/28116 <p>This article analyzes the influence that the educational ideas proposed by UNESCO had on the development of the General Education Act (LGE) of 1970. More specifically, it attempts to establish the impact that this international organization had on the origin and development of the LGE during the Franco regime. To do so, the first part of the article studies the beginnings of UNESCO in Spain and how the educational conception that would give rise to one of the most important educational reforms of contemporary Spain was developed. In the second part, we examine the recommendations given by the «International Advisory Committee for the Reform of Education in Spain» regarding the debate generated by the Libro Blanco (White Paper). In the third part of the article we look at the Committe’s direct impact and the way its assessments guided the development of the LGE in its first years. This work aims to demonstrate that the LGE can be better understood as a reform born under the recommendations of UNESCO regarding the educational context originated within the framework of the Cold War and the Modernization Theory.</p> Mariano González-Delgado Tamar Groves Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 14 209 252 10.5944/hme.14.2021.28116 The 1970s General Education Act by means of images http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/28783 <p>The aim of this paper is to provide an approach to the graphic representation of the Ley General de Educación (LGE) and the discourses it has generated. To this end, a distinction is made between the official or public image and its means and times of projection, and the private images that make up the iconic legacy of this legislative reform from its beginning to the present day. This approach shows that the graphic representation of the LGE, comparing the official and public image with the private one, leads to different and sometimes opposing narratives, which show the complex reality in which this ambitious educational reform was conceived and applied.</p> Francisca Comas Rubí Bernat Sureda Garcia Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 14 253 287 10.5944/hme.14.2021.28783 The General Education Act in Memory: from recognition to denial http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/28804 <p>The aim of this paper is to analyze the process of the drawing up of the General Education Act (LGE), created under the Franco regime and implemented a few years before the Spanish transition. In order to do so, we pay special attention to the socio-economic moment in which the law was projected and to the different political tendencies that were emerging in the scenario of dictatorship and that would become more visible in the transition. The paper also examines the individual and collective experiences and strategies of other sectors of the population, showing how they swung from recognition to denial of the LGE. The law’s implementation was the result of a critical diagnosis of the education system that implied a need for decisive change in the situation of education, a change that could be achieved by setting legal conditions for the normalization of universal education in Spain. The starting point was the belief that improving education would lead to the socio-economic development of the country while at the same time resolving the situation of ideological, political and social conflict that persisted under the dictatorship and that would be solved, in part, after 1978.</p> Patricia Delgado Granados Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 14 289 319 10.5944/hme.14.2021.28804 GARY MCCULLOCH, IVOR GOODSON Y MARIANO GONZÁLEZ-DELGADO (eds.). Transnational perspectives on curriculum history http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/29405 Review of the book by GARY MCCULLOCH, IVOR GOODSON Y MARIANO GONZÁLEZ-DELGADO (eds.). Transnational perspectives on curriculum history. Oxford/ New York: Routledge, 2020, 231 páginas. ISBN: 978-1-138-60478-0 Ignacio Frechtel Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 14 749 758 10.5944/hme.14.2021.29405 FABIO TARGHETTA. Un paese da scoprire, una terra da amare. Paesaggi educativi e formazione dell’identità nazionale nella prima metà del novecento http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/29031 <pre id="tw-target-text" class="tw-data-text tw-text-large XcVN5d tw-ta" dir="ltr" data-placeholder="Traducción"><span class="Y2IQFc" lang="it">Review of the book by </span> FABIO TARGHETTA. Un paese da scoprire, una terra da amare. Paesaggi educativi e formazione dell’identità nazionale nella prima metà del novecento. Milano: Franco Angeli, 2020, 203 páginas. ISBN: 978-8891799364</pre> Giorgio Chiosso Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-07-15 2021-07-15 14 759 763 10.5944/hme.14.2021.29031 ÁNGEL S. PORTO UCHA y RAQUEL VÁZQUEZ RAMIL. En el centenario del Instituto-Escuela. Obra educativa de los institucionistas http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/29491 Review of the book by ÁNGEL S. PORTO UCHA y RAQUEL VÁZQUEZ RAMIL. <em>En el centenario del Instituto-Escuela. Obra educativa de los institucionistas.</em> Soria: CEASGA-Publishing, 2019, 245 páginas. ISBN: 978-84-949321-5-1 Xosé M. Malheiro Gutiérrez Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 14 765 772 10.5944/hme.14.2021.29491 JOSEFINA MÉNDEZ VÁZQUEZ y FRANCISCO CHACÓN JIMÉNEZ (eds.). Historiar la educación de las mujeres en tiempos de cambio (siglos XVII-XX) http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/30450 Review of the book by JOSEFINA MÉNDEZ VÁZQUEZ y FRANCISCO CHACÓN JIMÉNEZ (eds.). Historiar la educación de las mujeres en tiempos de cambio (siglos XVII-XX). Granada: Editorial Comares, 2020, 171 páginas. ISBN: 978-84-9045-916-4 Beatriz Chamorro-Cercos Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 14 773 777 10.5944/hme.14.2021.30450 The General Education Act and the professionalism of a teacher http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/30186 <p>Memories of the General Education Act of 1970</p> José María Rozada Martínez Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 14 323 334 10.5944/hme.14.2021.30186 Brief memoir of a rural teacher in the times of the General Basic Education http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/30191 <p>Memories of the General Education Act of 1970</p> Alicia López Pardo Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 14 335 346 10.5944/hme.14.2021.30191 My years in the EGB (1974-1980) http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/30185 <p>Memories of the General Education Act of 1970</p> Alejandro Tiana Ferrer Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 14 347 354 10.5944/hme.14.2021.30185 The General Education Act (LGE) and the 1970 reform. A personal view from peripheral education management http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/30184 <p>Memories of the General Education Act of 1970</p> Antonio Viñao Frago Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 14 355 370 10.5944/hme.14.2021.30184 My experience with the General Education Act http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/30183 <p>Memories of the General Education Act of 1970</p> Manuel Puelles Benítez Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 14 371 376 10.5944/hme.14.2021.30183 The General Education Act of 1970 / Fifty Years of memories…. http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/30190 <p>Memories of the General Education Act of 1970</p> Marc Antoni Adell Cueva Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 14 377 388 10.5944/hme.14.2021.30190 People like you and me: the texts of Rosario Castellanos in the ideological contradictions of indigenist language policy http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/28280 <p>In this article we analyze documents written by Rosario Castellanos during the years that she worked as a scriptwriter for the puppet plays in the Highlands of Chiapas. These plays were part of educational campaigns aimed at the Tsotsil and Tseltal Maya population. We show that the discourses circulating during the years in which indigenous politics was being constructed were permeated by opposing and contradictory ideological tensions, tensions that were reflected in the proposal and use of categories of identification of the population and their languages, in the theoretical objectives and ideals and in the participants’ personal and collective stories.</p> Susana Ayala Reyes Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 14 391 424 10.5944/hme.14.2021.28280 Isidro Aliau: teacher, inspector and reformist in the origins of the Argentine educational system http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/28451 In the middle of the 19th century, the progressive consolidation of the American independent states opened new debates related to the need to extend school-based education to the entire population. Within this framework, this article aims to address the figure of Isidro Aliau, a Catalan teacher exiled in Argentina who between 1876 and 1887 held the position of Inspector General of Schools in the province of Santa Fe (Argentine Republic). From there, some of his pedagogical-linguistic contributions will be presented, contributions that have received scarce attention either in the field of the history of education or in the field of language politics. The article focuses on two of his main contributions: the development of a simultaneous teaching method of reading and writing to be used in primary schools, and the presentation of a project to reform the orthography of Spanish language, whose foundation was to simplify writing as a way to facilitate learning. These contributions are interpreted as political interventions in the realm of language, insofar as they represent an attempt to affect the social distribution of the written word, within the framework of an endeavor to expand literacy and democratize education. Mónica Baretta Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 14 425 449 10.5944/hme.14.2021.28451 “Living nature must be to the fore”. A study of the Dictionary of Pedagogy (1936) by the publisher Editorial Labor and the teaching of physics, chemistry and natural sciences http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/29250 <p>We present the study of one of the great projects of the Barcelona publisher Editorial Labor, namely the <em>Diccionario de Pedagogía</em> (1936), from a new perspective: the analysis of entries on the teaching of scientific subjects. The axis of the methodologies proposed by the work is the study of living things in their natural environment from an ecological perspective, both outside the classroom via excursions and inside through aquaria, terraria, herbaria and school kitchen gardens. These methodologies can be seen to have been be influenced by New Education principles, the English Nature Study movement and the Spanish Institución Libre de Enseñanza. Coordinated by Luis Sánchez Sarto, the <em>Diccionario de Pedagogía</em> recorded the state of pedagogy and education worldwide, counting on a hundred or so anonymous authors most of whom were German, Austrian, American or Spanish. John Dewey, Vilhelm Rasmussen and Georg Kerschensteiner are the dictionary’s pedagogical references in science teaching. In our article, we present arguments suggesting that Margarita Comas Camps and Rafael Candel Vila were the authors of the dictionary’s two entries on teaching methodology.</p> Mavi Corell Domenech Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 14 451 486 10.5944/hme.14.2021.29250 Pioneering women: the secondary school professor Rosario Fuentes http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/27510 <p>If higher education was already restricted and off-limits to women until the 20th century, their access to teaching and obtaining academic positions at these levels was even more difficult and complex. The aim of this paper is to describe a paradigmatic case of this problem: the life of Rosario Fuentes, who achieved the highest score in a public exam to become French professor and who became the first secondary school professor at the Zorrilla high school in Valladolid. Fuentes alsohad a relevant career as a translator, with contributions to texts on education, philosophy and psychology. This study highlights her role as a researcher associated with the Junta para la Ampliación de Estudios (Board for Advanced Studies) and as a writer of French textbooks. She also took part in the organization of language teachers as well as teaching in different Teacher Training Schools. Her career suffered as a result of the purging process which Franco’s dictatorship carried out on teachers, a process that was especially arbitrary against women due to the fact that their own actions and thoughts were often considered less relevant than those of their partners or relatives.. This paper, which examines many of these aspects of her life, relies on documentation and unpublished images from different archives such as those of the administration and the family, as well as previous works that analyse the issue of women teachers in Secondary Education.</p> Jorge Fernàndez Gonzàlez Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 14 487 509 10.5944/hme.14.2021.27510 Scientific and construction toys in education and industry: values and interactions in Spain (1920-1936) http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/27412 <p>This study contemplates the extension and mutual influences of certain kinds of renovating practices promoted in two realms of education, formal and non-formal, in the second and third decades of the 20th century in Spain. As part of a broader critique of the traditional school, these new perspectives coincided in their rethinking of the students’ and amateurs’) relationship with the materials used in learning process. For them, the object, rather than constituting a distant, symbolic and untouchable reality –subject to a memory-based, verbalist conception of education–, should be a close, touchable tool whose handling contributes to awakening the inventive abilities of students, especially in scientific disciplines. We will analyze the connections and differences between the principles of movements included in active teaching and the strategies of companies dedicated to the manufacture of construction toys, particularly those carried out by a preeminent brand working in this sector at the time, Meccano.</p> Victor Guijarro Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 14 511 546 10.5944/hme.14.2021.27412 The educationalization of school architecture in Switzerland between 1840 and 1950 http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/27308 <p>This paper analyses and contrasts the evolution of school architecture competitions, selected submitted projects and built schoolhouses, programmatic and professional literature, school building exhibitions and public reactions to them aiming at answering the following research question: How did architecture competitions, educational reforms and programmatic or professional literature contribute to the educationalization of the school building between 1835 and 1950 in Switzerland? The question will be approached from a perspective of educationalization, knowledge transfer and circulation between professional and political knowledge or discourses on education and practices of architecture competitions by contextualizing school building reform discourses within general school and education reform processes. The evolution of school building architecture competitions in Switzerland and the participation of a variety of actors demonstrate how the school building became a co-educator, how historical building designs are constantly naturalised to fit reform programs, and the relevance of calls for tender as source for the history of education.</p><br /><div><img src="/index.php/HMe/author/viewMetadata/" alt="" /></div> Marianne Helfenberger Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 14 547 585 10.5944/hme.14.2021.27308 The Chilean school under the civil military dictatorship (1973-1980): the school experience in authoritarian context http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/29003 <p>This paper presents the results of an investigation that aimed to describe and analyse the transformations in the educational experience of students and teachers based on the new regulations designed and implemented by the civil-military dictatorship in Chile between 1973 and 1980. Specifically, it deals with the initiatives that sought to control and monitor various actors in the educational system at different levels and to transform relevant aspects of school culture and reorient pedagogical practices in the school. In methodological terms, various primary documentary sources were analysed, such as circulars, official letters and decree-laws published by the Ministry of Education, newspapers, and magazines. We conclude that these actions were aimed at intervening educational establishments in three main areas: in daily school life, through the incorporation and intensification of new civic and religious rites; in the purification and ideologization of educational plans and programs, and in pedagogical practices, through a hierarchical approach to the relationship between teachers and students.</p> Camila Perez Navarro Felipe Zurita Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 14 587 614 10.5944/hme.14.2021.29003 Domestic Economy in the school. Women's education: programs and textbooks (Argentina, 1870- 1920) http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/28974 <p>In Argentina, starting in the year 1870 the first national Normal Schools (Teacher Training Schools) were created at the initiative of Domingo F. Sarmiento. As in other countries, the expansion of Normal Schools responded to the need to train teachers in order to give instruction to the majority of the population, to provide moral guidance to popular sectors, to transmit basic principles of hygiene, and to help make them part of the same national community. In these nascent modern states, functionaries also had to take care of providing a differentiated education to girls, so that they would learn to be good wives, mothers and housewives, through the transmission of content prepared especially for them. Imitating countries such as the United States, France or Belgium, the subject Domestic Economy was included in Normal Schools and primary schools. In this article we will discuss: a) how the subject was incorporated into the curriculum developed for the primary schools of the province of Buenos Aires as well as the capital city, what the course loads consisted of, and how they evolved; b) what content and purposes the programs pursued; c) what topics were dealt with in the texts selected by the official authorities; d) and how the subject was taught in the classroom.</p> Laura Graciela Rodriguez Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 14 615 641 10.5944/hme.14.2021.28974 Educational modernization in Spain in a scenario of social change and democratic openness. Conversations with Pedro Caselles Beltrán, General Director of General Basic Education (1976-1982) http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/30053 <p>This text is an extract from several conversations held with Pedro Caselles Beltrán (1937), a primary school teacher with a degree in Philosophy and Humanities, specialising in Pedagogy, and an education inspector. Pedro Caselles occupied the provincial education offices in Lugo, Cádiz and A Coruña (1970-1976); later he was Deputy Director General of Non-State Schools and General Director of Basic Education (1977-1982). The text deals with his professional career, a summary of administrative management and political action, with particular emphasis on his time as a provincial delegate and later as a senior official in the Ministry of Education and Science (MEC). Under his mandate, several initiatives were carried out, including the promotion of the General Education and Financing of the Education Reform Act (LGE) of 4 August 1970 through the renewal of the Basic General Education Programmes.</p> Xosé M. Malheiro Gutiérrez Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 14 695 745 10.5944/hme.14.2021.30053 Education, judiciary and Constitution, 1978-2020 (II). The mental and educational rights of minors http://revistas.uned.es/index.php/HMe/article/view/29069 <p>This essay concerns the respect in Spain of the mental, (in)formative, and educational rights recognized in the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child, especially in relation to the rights of parents to have their children receive religious and moral training in accordance with their convictions (art. 27.3 of 1978 Constitution). After a historical reference to the aforementioned rights of minors, the article offers an analysis of the Convention and its legal development in Spain; the nature, propietorship and limits of the rights alluded to of the parents; the child’s freedom of thought, conscience and religion; and the judicial treatment of both rights in cases of divergence or conflict are analysed.</p> Antonio Viñao Frago Copyright (c) 2021 Historia y Memoria de la Educación 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 14 645 691 10.5944/hme.14.2021.29069