Pilar Munárriz Sánchez & Luis Leal Crespo, two Teachers in Exile from Girona to Caracas

Salomó Marqués i Sureda


This article offers part of the unknown memoirs written in Caracas by the teacher and inspector of primary education Pilar Munárriz, who had worked as inspector in the Spanish regions of Girona and Álaba. These memoirs were written the year her husband, Luis Leal Crespo, died. He worked as a teacher at the Teacher Education Schools of La Laguna, Oviedo and Girona. Afterwards, the couple left for the Dominican Republic where Leal continued to work in the field of Education. With the arrival of Trujillo’s dictatorship, they had to leave the country due to political pressures, and they finally settled in Caracas. In the Venezuelan capital Leal worked in different schools managed by his Republican colleagues and friends in exile. Finally, he created his own: the Leal School. These memoirs contribute to our knowledge of how family life was for a married couple of teachers in exile and it looks at the professional and political epiphanies that marked their lives, both in Santo Domingo and in Venezuela.


Exilio maestros republicanos; Pilar Munarriz; Luís Leal Crespo; Colegio Leal; Educación en República Dominicana; Educación en Venezuela


Calle, Emilio y Ada Simón. Los barcos del exilio. Madrid: Oberon, 2005.

Cruz, Ignacio. «Los profesores españoles exiliados en Santo Domingo», Cuadernos Republicanos 14 (1993): 107-116.

Marquès Sureda, Salomó – Juan José Martín Frechilla. La labor educativa de los exiliados españoles en Venezuela. Caracas: Fondo Editorial de Humanidades y Educación, Universidad Central de Venezuela, 2002.

Puigbert, Joan. La Normal de Girona i el magisteri públic (1914-1936). Girona: Universitat de Girona, 1994.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5944/hme.9.2019.22905


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