Picturing the Progressive Education: Images and Propaganda in The New Era (1920-1939)

Sjaak Braster, Maria del Mar Pozo Andres

Abstract


 In this article we analyse the propaganda work done by the journal The New Era for divulgating and popularising the progressive education movement. The review started in 1920, so it was the first in transmitting the ideas of this movement, and also the first English language journal that became the channel of expression of the New Education Fellowship, for divulgating the innovative ideals in the Anglo-saxon countries.

We have studied the propaganda work from the images that the journal has published between 1920 and 1939. As a research method we have chosen a combination of content analysis and a grounded theory approach. We have identified a list of categories that are connected with the characteristics of new or progressive education. We have considered as starting point that all the ideals and school practices made more visible by the journal, i.e., the ones that were shown in many images, were those used for building a public image of the New Education.

We have organized the visual discourse built by The New Era around six ideas: coeducation, activity, freedom, nature, child-centered, and individualization versus socialization. We have quantified the number of images that were published in connexion with everyone of these ideas, making comparisons between spaces and times. The quantitative analysis has allowed us to explain general patterns and exceptional features. Finally, we present the most remarkable characteristics of the iconographical discourse about the New Education that was built and propagated by The New Era.


Keywords


Progressive Education; The New Era; Pedagogical propaganda; Photography

References


Aldrich, Richard. «The Plowden report, 1967: A visual study in primary school location, space and learning». Comunicación presentada en ISCHE XX, Universidad de Lovaina, Bélgica, 1998.

Altamira, Rafael. Exigencias de la propaganda pedagógica. Madrid: Tipografía «La Itálica», 1913.

Archer, Margaret S. Social origins of educational systems. London/New York: Routledge, 2013.

Bell, Philip. «Content analysis of visual images». En Handbook of visual analysis, editado por Theo Van Leeuwen y Carey Jewitt, 10-34. London: Sage, 2001.

Bernays, Edgard L. Propaganda. New York: Horace Liveright, 1928.

Bock, Annekatrin, Holger Iserman y Thomas Knieper. «Quantitative content analysis of the visual». En The Sage Handbook of visual research methods, editado por Eric Margolis y Luc Pauwels, 265-282. London: Sage, 2011.

Braster, Sjaak. «Educational change and Dutch classroom photographs: A qualitative and quantitative analysis». En The Black Box of Schooling. A Cultural History of the Classroom, editado por Sjaak Braster, Ian Grosvenor y María del Mar del Pozo Andrés, 21-37. Brussels: Peter Lang, 2011.

Braster, Sjaak y María del Mar del Pozo Andrés. «Education and the children's colonies in the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939): the images of the community ideal». Paedagogica Historica 51, no. 4 (2015): 455-477.

Braster, Sjaak. «The progressive child: Images of new education in the New Era, 1920-1939». History of Education & Children Literature 13, no. 1 (2018) (en prensa).

Brehony, Kevin J. «From the particular to the general, the continuous to the discontinuous: progressive education revisited». History of Education 30, no. 5 (2001): 413-432.

Brehony, Kevin J. «A New Education for a New Era: The Contribution of the Conferences of the New Education Fellowship to the Disciplinary Field of Education 1921 – 1938». Paedagogica Historica 40, no. 5-6 (2004): 733-755.

Burke, Catherine y Ian Grosvenor. «The Progressive Image in the History of Education: Stories of Two Schools». Visual Studies 22, no. 2 (2007): 155-168.

Burke, Catherine. «Feet, footwork, footwear, and “being alive” in the modern school». Paedagogica Historica 54, no. 1-2 (2018): 32-47.

Collins, Michael. «History and the Postcolonial. Rabindranath Tagore’s Reception in London, 1912-1913». The International Journal of the Humanities 4, no. 9 (2007), 71-83.

Comas Rubí, Francisca y Bernat Sureda García. «The photography and propaganda of the Maria Montessori method in Spain (1911–1931)». Paedagogica Historica 48, no. 4 (2012): 571-587.

Condette, Jean-François y Antoine Savoye. «Une éducation pour l’ère nouvelle, le congrès international d’éducation de Calais 1921». Études Sociales 163 (2016): 43-79.

Coquoz, Joseph. «Un modèle suisse “d’École active” durant l’entre-deux-guerres: images et mirages». Paedagogica Historica 36, no. 1 (2000): 369-388.

Di Franco, Giovanni. «Multiple correspondance analysis: one only or several techniques?». Quality & Quantity. International Journal of Methodology 50, no. 3 (2016): 1299-1315.

Fallace, Thomas. «The Savage Origins of Child-Centered Pedagogy, 1871-1913». American Educational Research Journal 52, no. 1 (2015): 73-103.

Fuchs, Eckhardt. «Educational sciences, morality and politics. International educational congresses in the early twentieth century». Paedagogica Historica 40, no. 5-6 (2004): 757-784.

Gutek, Gerald L., y Patricia A. Gutek. Bringing Montessori to America. S.S. McClure, Maria Montessori and the Campaign to Publicize Montessori Education. Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 2016.

Gutierrez, Laurent. «La Ligue Internationale pour l'Éducation Nouvelle. Contribution à l'histoire d'un mouvement international de réforme de l'enseignement (1921–1939)». Spirale – Revue de Recherches en Éducation 45 (2009): 29-41.

Haenggeli-Jenni, Béatrice. «Pour l'Ère Nouvelle: une revue carrefour entre science et militance (1922–1940)». PhD diss., Universidad de Ginebra, 2011.

Haenggeli-Jenni, Béatrice. «“Savoirs” constitués et programmes scolaires: débats au cœur de la revue Pour l'Ère Nouvelle (1922-1940)». Recherches & Éducations 4 (2011): 13-25.

Haenggeli-Jenni, Béatrice y Rita Hofstetter. «Pour l'Ère Nouvelle (1922–1940). La science convoquée pour fonder une “Internationale de l'Éducation”». Carrefours de l'Éducation 31 (2011): 137-159.

Hameline, Daniel. «Les premières années de Pour l'Ère nouvelle: militantisme et propagande?». Les Sciences de l'éducation – Pour l'Ère nouvelle 35, no. 4 (2002): 27-40.

Haubfleisch, Dietmar y Jörg-Werner Link (eds.). Das Werdende Zeitalter (Internationale Erziehungs-Rundschau). Bonn: Archiv der Arbeiterjugendbewegung, 1994.

Huntley, Herbert E. The divine proportion. A study in mathematical beauty. New York: Dover Publications, 1970.

Jenkins, Celia M. «The professional middle class and the social origins of progressivism: A case study of the New Education Fellowship, 1920–1950». PhD diss., Universidad de Londres, 1989.

Jenkins, Celia M. «New Education and its emancipatory interests (1920 – 1950)». History of Education 29, no 2 (2000): 139-151.

King, Alison. «From sage on the stage to guide on the side». College Teaching 41, no. 1 (1993): 30-35.

Koslowski, Steffi. Die New Era der New Education Fellowship: Ihr Beitrag zur Internationalität der Reformpädagogik in 20. Jahrhundert. Bad Heilbrunn: Julius Klinkhardt, 2013.

Krippendorf, Klaus. Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology. London: Sage, 2004.

Labra, Rafael María de. Discurso pronunciado el día 11 de noviembre de 1913 en el Ateneo de Madrid, con motivo de la apertura de las Cátedras. Madrid: Est. Tip. de Fortanet, 1913.

Laqua, Daniel. «Transnational intellectual cooperation, the League of Nations, and the problem of order». Journal of Global History 6, no. 2 (2011): 223-247.

Lawson, Maxwell D. «The New Education Fellowship: The Formative Years». Journal of Educational Administration and History 13, no. 2 (1981): 24-28.

Lubelsky, Isaac. Celestial India: Madame Blavatsky and the Birth of Indian Nationalism. Oakville, CT: Equinox Publication, 2012.

Middleton, Sue C. «New Zealand Theosophists in “New Education” networks, 1880s-1938». History of Education Review 46, no. 1 (2017): 42-57.

Moore, Colin. Propaganda Prints. A History of Art in the Service of Social and Political Change. London: A&C Black Publishers Limited, 2010.

Mukhopadhyay, Mriganka. «The Occult and the Orient. The Theosophical Society and the Socio-Religious Space in Colonial India». Presidency Historical Review 1, no. 2 (2015): 9-37.

Newcourt-Nowodworski, Stanley. La propaganda negra en la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Barcelona: Algaba Ediciones, 2006.

Oelkers, Jürgen. Reformpädagogik: Eine kritische Dogmengeschichte. Weinheim: Juventa, 20054.

Ploeg, Piet van der. Dalton Plan: Origins and Theory of Dalton Education. Deventer: Saxion Dalton University Press, 2013.

Ploeg, Piet van der. «The Dalton Plan: recycling in the guise of innovation». Paedagogica Historica 49, no. 3 (2013): 314-329.

Pozo Andrés, María del Mar del. «La imagen de la mujer en la educación contemporánea». En Las mujeres en la construcción del mundo contemporáneo, editado por Teresa Marín Eced y María del Mar del Pozo Andrés, 241-301. Cuenca: Diputación de Cuenca, 2002.

Pozo Andrés, María del Mar del. «Imágenes e historia de la educación: construcción, reconstrucción y representación de las prácticas escolares en el aula». Historia de la Educación. Revista Interuniversitaria 25 (2006): 291-315.

Pozo Andrés, María del Mar del. «The transnational and national dimensions of pedagogical ideas: the case of the project method, 1918-1939». Paedagogica Historica 45, no 4-5 (2009): 561-584.

Pozo Andrés, María del Mar del y Sjaak Braster. «El Plan Dalton en España: Recepción y Apropiación (1920-1939)». Revista de Educación 377 (2017): 113-135.

Riondet, Xavier. «Élise Freinet: de l’expérience naturiste aux pratiques de l’École Freinet». Recherches & éducations [En abierto], 8 Juin 2013, document 9, mis en ligne le 15 juillet 2013, consultado el 11 enero 2018.

Rose, Gillian. Visual methodologies: An introduction to researching with visual materials. London: Sage, 20164.

Selten, Marjolein y Fleur van der Zandt. «Space vs. Place». http://geography.ruhosting.nl/geography/index.php?title=Space_vs._place (consultado el 31-12-2017).

Strauss, Anselm y Juliet M. Corbin. «Grounded theory methodology: An overview». En Handbook of qualitative research, editado por Norman K. Denzin e Yvonna S. Lincoln, 273-285. Thousand Oaks: Sage, 1994.

Van Gorp, Angelo. «The Decroly School in documentaries (1930s-1950s): contextualising propaganda from within». Paedagogica Historica 47, no. 4 (2011): 507-523.

Wagner, Peter. Reading Iconotexts. From Swift to the French Revolution. London: Reaktion Books, 1995.

Wagnon, Sylvain. «Les théosophes et l’organisation internationale de l’éducation nouvelle (1911-1921)». REHMLAC+ 9, no. 1 (2017): 146-180.

Watras, Joseph. «The New Education Fellowship and UNESCO’s programme of fundamental education». Paedagogica Historica 47, no. 1-2 (2011): 191-205.

White, Margaret H. «The New Education Fellowship: An international community of practice». New Era in Education 82, no. 3 (2001): 71-75.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5944/hme.8.2018.21310

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Historia y Memoria de la Educación

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2444-0043


Attribution-NonCommercial  (CC BY-NC 4.0). This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.