Persis Berlekamp


Tanto para la sociedad medieval como para la  moderna, el puente Zangid en Jacirat b. ʿUmar / Cizre / ʿAin Diwar ha estado siempre íntimamente ligado a sus aguas.  Históricamente, los reflejos de su arco de bóveda, los relieves astrológicos y la caligrafía cúfica brillaron sobre ellos en una variedad de combinaciones. El conjunto del puente y sus aguas expresaban el amplio símil poético de la tierra como espejo del cielo, el vínculo casual que la sociedad medieval pensaba que existía entre los ámbitos terrestre y celestial, así como la naturaleza altamente intangible del acceso terrenal a las esferas celestiales.  En el mundo actual, esas mismas aguas delimitan la conflictiva línea fronteriza entre los estados de Siria y Turquía. Como resultado, el acceso de los expertos al puente también ha sido muy restringido, convertida en una zona peligrosa por los robos y que dificulta nuestro acceso al pasado.Por todo ello, el puente ejemplariza tanto la sofisticada relación medieval entre arte y naturaleza, como las formas inevitables en que el presente impide la investigación histórica.

Whether for medieval or modern audiences, the Zangid bridge at Jazirat b. ʿUmar / Cizre / ʿAin Diwar has been integrally linked to its waters. Historically, reflections of its dome-like arch, astrological reliefs, and Kufic calligraphy shimmered on them in shifting combinations. The bridge and its waters thereby together expressed the widespread poetic trope of the earth as the mirror of the heavens, the causal link medieval audiences believed existed between terrestrial and celestial realms, and the highly elusive nature of earthly access to heavenly influences. In the modern world, the same waters define the troubled state border between Syria and Turkey. As a result, scholarly access to the bridge has also been highly elusive, making it particularly vulnerable to theft, and endangering our access to the past. The bridge ultimately exemplifies both the sophistication of medieval relationships between art and nature, and the inescapable ways the present impedes historical inquiry.

Palabras clave

Arquitectura islámica; astrología; escritura especular; guerra; mercado de arte; Islamic architecture; astrology; mirror writing; war; art market

Texto completo:

PDF (English)


AL-ABED, Tareq, translated by MENASSA, Pascale (2014): “Who Controls Syrian Border Crossings.” In October 14 2016.

ALGAZE, Guillermo: “A New Frontier: First Results of the Tigris-Euphrates Archaeological Reconnaissance Project, 1988,” Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 48 (1989), 241-281.

ALGAZE, Guillermo, HAMMER, Emily and PARKER, Bradley: “The Tigris-Euphrates Archaeological Reconnaissance Project. Final Report of the Cizre Dam and Cizre-Silopi Plan Survey Areas,” Anatolica, 38 (2012), 1-115.

ANONYMOUS on (no date): [Numbered but untititled photos] 17022624, 17307372, 22270746, 54042315, 2686429. In ; ; ; ; September 12 2016.

ARIK, M. Oluş: Hasankeyf: Üç Dünyanın Buluştuğu Kent. Istanbul, Aralık, 2003.

AZARPAY, Guitty: “The Eclipse Dragon on an Arabic Frontispiece-Miniature,” Journal of the American Oriental Society, 98 (1978), 363-74.

BAER, Eva: “The Ruler in Cosmic Setting: A Note on Medieval Islamic Iconography,” in DANESHVARI, Abbas (ed.): Essays in Islamic Art and Architecture in Honor of Katharina Otto-Dorn. Malibu, CA, Undena Publications, 1981, 13-19.

BAHRANI, Zainab (2014): “Illicit Trade Funds Terrorists,” In: August 12 2015.

BELL, Gertrude: Amurath to Amurath. Second edition. London, MacMillan, 1924.

BELL, Gertrude: “The Gertrude Bell Archive, Newcastle University Library.” In September 8 2016.

BERLEKAMP, Persis: “Symmetry, Sympathy, and Sensation: Talismanic Efficacy and Slippery Iconographies in Early 13th C Iraq, Syria, and Anatolia,” Representations, 133 (2016), 59-109.

BERLEKAMP, Persis: Wonder, Image, and Cosmos in Medieval Islam. London, Yale University Press, 2011.

BLOOM, Jonathan: “The ‘Qubbat al-Khaḍrā’ and the Iconography of Height in Early Islamic Architecture,” Ars Orientalis, 23 (1993), 135-41.

BROADHURST, Ronald J.C. (trans.): The Travels of Ibn Jubayr. London, Jonathan Cape, 1952.

BURNS, Ross: The Monuments of Syria: A Guide. New York, New York University Press, 1992.

BURNS, Ross (2016): “The Monuments of Syria: A Window on Syria’s Past / أوابد سورية.” In: October 20 2016.

CANBY, Sheila et al.: Court and Cosmos: The Great Age of the Seljuqs. New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2016.

COMBE, Etienne, SAUVAGET, Jean and WIET, Gaston: Répertoire chronologique d’épigraphie arabe. Cairo, Institut français d'archéologie orientaledu Caire, 1931-1991. 18 vols.

CARBONI, Stefano: “Narcissism or Catoptromancy? Mirrors from the Medieval Eastern Islamic World,” in Patricia BAKER, Patricia and BREND, Barbara (eds.): Sifting Sands, Reading Signs: Studies in Honour of Professor Géza Fehérvárí. London, Furnace Publishing, 2006, 161-70.

EDSON, Evelyn and SAVAGE-SMITH, Emilie: Medieval Views of the Cosmos. Oxford, Bodleian Library, 2004.

FAKHRY, Majid: A History of Islamic Philosophy. New York, Columbia University Press, 1972.

FREEDOM HOUSE (2001): “Syria. Freedom in the World 2001.” In: November 15 2016.

GABRIEL, Albert: Monuments turcs d’Anatolie. Paris, E. de Boccard, 1931-34. 2 vols.

GABRIEL, Albert Voyages archéologiques dans la Turquie orientale. Paris, E. de Boccard, 1940. 2 vols.

GALLIAZZO, Vittorio: “Ponte,” in ROMANINI, Angiola Maria et al. (eds.): Enciclopedia dell’Arte Medievale. Rome, Instituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, 1998, vol. 9, 626-641.

GIBB, Hamilton A.R. (trans.): The Travels of Ibn Battuta, A.D. 1325-1354. London, Hakluyt Society, 1958.

GIERLICHS, Joachim: “Das Mosul-Tor von Amādiya im Nordirak. Ein unbekanntes islamisches Figurenrelief und seine Bedutung,” Baghdader Mitteilungen, 26 (1995), 195-206.

GIERLICHS, Joachim: Mittelalterliche Tierreliefs in Anatolian und Mesopotamien. Tübingen, Ernst Wasmuth Verlag, 1996.

GODFREY, Jonathan: Gertrude Bell, Photographer. A Preliminary Report into Her Cameras and Methods, (Unpublished Paper), Newcastle Upon Tyne, 1998.

GRABAR, Oleg: “From Dome of Heaven to Pleasure Dome,” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, 49 (1990), 15-21.

GRABAR, Oleg: The Mediation of Ornament. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1992.

HARTNER, Willy: “The Pseudoplanetary Nodes of the Moon’s Orbit in Hindu and Islamic Iconographies,” Ars Islamica, 5 (1938), 112-154.

HATTSTEIN, Markus and DELIUS, Peter (eds.): Islam, Kunst und Architektur. Munich, Könemann, 2000.

HERZFELD, Ernst: “Der Thron des Khosrô. Quellenkritische und ikonographische Studien über Grenzgebiete der Kunstgeschichte des Morgen- und Abendlandes (Fortsetzung),” Jahrbuch der Preuszischen Kunstsammlungen, 41 (1920), 103-147.

HILLENBRAND, Carole: The History of the Jazīra 1100-1150: the contribution of Ibn Al-Azraq al-Fārīqī, (Unpublished doctoral thesis), Edinburgh University, 1979.

HOWELL, Georgina: Gertrude Bell: Queen of the Desert, Shaper of Nations. New York, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2008.

IBN AL-ATHIR, ʿAli: al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh. Beirut, Dār Ṣādir, 1965-67. 12 vols.

INTERNATIONAL CAMPAIGN TO BAN LANDMINES: Landmine Monitor Report 2003: Toward a Mine-free World. New York, Human Rights Watch, 2003.

KADOI, Yuka: “Translating from jing to mir’āt / ā’īna: Medieval Islamic Mirrors Revisited,” Art in Translation, 5 (2013), 251-272.

KOCHAR, Asrin (2016): “2016-8-27. تقرير كامل عن الحالة الامنية في قرية عين ديوار ” In October 15 2016.

KOCHAR, Asrin (2016): “Taqrīr Kāmil ʿan al-Ḥāla al-Aminiyya fī Quryat ʿAyn Diwār 2016-8-27.” In October 15 2016.

KUEHN, Sara: The Dragon in Medieval East Christian and Islamic Art. Leiden, Brill, 2011.

LEHMANN, Karl: “The Dome of Heaven,” The Art Bulletin, 27 (1945), 1-27.

LEISER, Gary: “Observations on the ‘Lion and Sun’ Coinage of Ghiyath al-Din Kai-Khusraw II,” Mésogeios, 2 (1998), 96-114.

MATTHEWS, Thomas: “Cracks in Lehmann’s ‘Dome of Heaven’ ,” Notes in the History of Art, 1 (1982), 12-16.

MEINECKE, Michael: Patterns of Stylistic Changes in Islamic Architecture: Local Traditions versus Migrating Artists. New York, New York University Press, 1996.

MICHOT, Yahya: “Ibn Taymiyya on Astrology. Annotated Translation of Three Fatwas,” Journal of Islamic Studies, 11 (2000), 147-208.

MÜLLER-SIMONIS, Paul: Vom Kaukasus zum persischen meerbusen, Durch Armenien, Kurdistan und Mesopotamien. Mainz, Kirchheim, 1897.

NECIPOĞLU, Gülru: The Age of Sinan: Architectural Culture in the Ottoman Empire. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2005.

NECIPOĞLU, Gülru: The Topkapı Scroll: Geometry and Ornament in Islamic Architecture. Santa Monica, The Getty Center, 1995.

NECIPOĞLU, Gülru; BOZDOĞAN, Sibel (eds.): Historiography and Ideology: Architectural Heritage in the “Lands of Rum,” Muqarnas (Special Issue). Leiden, E.J. Brill, 2007.

NICOLLE, David: “The Zangid bridge of Ǧazīrat ibn ʿUmar (ʿAyn Dīwār/Cizre): a New Look at the Carved Panel of an Armoured Horseman,” Bulletin d'études Orientales, 64 (2015), 223-264.

ÖNEY, Gönül: “Sun and moon rosettes in the shape of human heads in Anatolian Seljuk architecture,” Anatolica, 3 (1969-70), 195-203.

PENTCHEVA, Bissera: “The Power of Glittering Materiality: Mirror Reflections Between Poetry and Architecture in Greek and Arabic Medieval Culture,” Ancient Near Eastern Studies. Supplementa, 47 (2014), 223-68.

PREUSSER, Conrad: Nordmesopotamische Baudenkmäler altchristlicher und islamischer Zeit. Leipzig, J.C. Hinrichs’sche Buchhandlung, 1911.

PLÜSS, Marco and ARIK, M. Oluş: Hasankeyf. Istanbul, Tarih Vakfı, 2001.

AL-QADDUMI, Ghada al-Hijjawi (trans.): Book of Gifts and Rarities = Kitab al-Hadaya wa al-Tuhaf. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 1996.

REDFORD, Scott: “The Seljuqs of Rum and the Antique,” Muqarnas 10 (1993), 148-156.

RICHARDS, Donald S. (trans.): The Chronicle of Ibn al-Athir for the Crusading Period from al-Kāmil fī’l-ta’rikh, Part 2. Farnham, Ashgate, 2007.

ROXBURGH, David: Prefacing the Image: The Writing of Art History in Sixteenth-Century Iran. Boston, Brill, 2001.

SAVAGE-SMITH, Emilie and RAPOPORT, Yossef (eds.): The Book of Curiosities: A critical edition. World-Wide-Web publication. ( March 2007.

SELLS, Michael: “Ibn ʿArabi’s Polished Mirror: Perspective Shift and Meaning Event,” Studia Islamica 67 (1988), 121-149.

SHALEM, Avinoam: "Objects as carriers of real or contrived memories in a cross-cultural context,” Mitteilungen zur Spätantiken Archäologie und Byzantinischen Kunstgeschichte 4 (2005), 101-119.

SOLOMON, Erika (2015): “Isis to cut private internet access in parts of Syria.” In January 4 2017.

SOPER, Alexander: “The ‘Dome of Heaven’ in Asia,” The Art Bulletin (1947), 225-248.

STIFO, George: “Homeland Photos, Syria, Ain Diwar.” In: November 8 2016.

WALLACH, Janet: Desert queen: the Extraordinary Life of Gertrude Bell, Adventurer, Adviser to Kings, Ally of Lawrence of Arabia. New York, Nan A. Talese/Doubleday, 1996.

WEBER, Elka: Traveling Through Text: Message and Method in Late Medieval Pilgrimage Accounts. New York, Routledge, 2005.

WHELAN, Estelle: The Public Figure: Political Iconography in Medieval Mesopotamia. London, Melisende, 2006.

WHITTAKER, Zach (2013): “Surveillance and censorhip: Inside Syria’s Internet.” In November 10 2016.

YALMAN, Suzan: “ʿAla al-Din Kaykubad Illuminated: A Rum Seljuk Sultan as Cosmic Ruler,” Muqarnas 29 (2012), 151-186.

YAŞIN, Abdullah: Tarih, Kültür ve Cizre. İstanbul, Kent Işıkları, 2007.


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.

Copyright (c) 2017 Persis Berlekamp

URL de la licencia:

Revistas Espacio, Tiempo y Forma. Series I-VII
Espacio, Tiempo y Forma, Serie VII, Historia del Arte (ISSN: 1130-4715; eISSN: 2340-1478)
Facultad de Geografía e Historia. UNED
Calle Senda del Rey, 7
28040 - MADRID (España)
Teléfonos: +34 91.398.67.13 / 67.03

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial 4.0 Internacional.