Propuesta de protección ambiental para un enclave libre de hielo de la Antártida Marítima (Punta Elefante, isla Livingston) = Proposal of environmental protection for an ice-free area in the Maritime Antarctic (Elephant Point, Livingston Island)

Marc Oliva, Jesús Ruiz-Fernández, Andrés Zarankin, María Angélica Casanova-Katny, Jordi Nofre

Resumen



Las áreas libres de hielo de la Antártida Marítima son espacios de elevada biodiversidad y riqueza de formas y procesos geomorfológicos. En este trabajo se analiza la geomorfología, geoecología y los vestigios arqueológicos dejados por los primeros colonizadores antárticos en una de estas áreas, Punta Elefante (isla Livingston). Esta área libre de hielo de 1,16 km2 cuenta con un 17% de superficie deglaciada entre 1956-2010. Mediante un enfoque geoecológico se constata una clara imbricación entre las unidades geomorfológicas y la distribución de su fauna y flora. Además, se identificaron 5 sitios arqueológicos que corresponden a los cazadores de focas que explotaron los recursos naturales de la Península Antártica durante los siglos XVIII-XIX. Debido a la riqueza de su patrimonio natural y la singularidad de su registro arqueológico, se propone la designación de Punta Elefante como Área Antártica de Especial Protección con el objetivo de preservar estos valores para las generaciones futuras.

Abstract
Ice-free areas in the Maritime Antarctica are environments showing a high degree of biodiversity and a wide range of geomorphological processes and landforms. In this paper we analyze the geomorphology, geoecology as well as the archaeological evidences left by the first Antarctic settlers in Elephant Point (Livingston Island). This ice-free area extends over 1.16 km2, with 17% of its surface deglaciated between 1956 and 2010. Using a geocological approach a clear linkage has been inferred between the geomorphological units and the distribution of the fauna and flora. Besides, five archaeological sites have been found in this peninsula corresponding to the first sealers who exploited the natural resources of the Antarctic Peninsula during the XVIII-XIX. Considering the unique natural heritage and the singularity of its archaeological remains, we propose the designation of Elephant Point as an Antarctic Special Protected Area with the purpose of preserving this environment for future generations.


Palabras clave


Punta Elefante; Área Antártica de Especial Protección; geomorfología; geoecología; sitios arqueológicos = Elephant Point; Antarctic Special Protected Area; geomorphology; geoecology; archaeological sites.

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/etfvi.10.2017.19058

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Copyright (c) 2017 Marc Oliva, Jesús Ruiz-Fernández, Andrés Zarankin, María Angélica Casanova-Katny, Jordi Nofre

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