Las interpretaciones arqueológicas y la aparición de fortificaciones en el período protohistórico de Corea (300 aC – 300 dC) = The Archaeological Interpretations and the Emergence of Fortifications in the Protohistoric Period of Korea

Victor Lluís Pérez Garcia

Resumen


Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar arqueológicamente las fortificaciones del período protohistórico de Corea (300 aC – 300 dC), desde los terraplenes, empalizadas y fosos de los primeros núcleos de carácter urbano hasta posibles murallas de carácter fronterizo, en un momento clave en la evolución social, política, cultural y arquitectónica de la península, de transición de la aldea a la ciudad y de los cacicazgos tribales a las confederaciones de pequeñas ciudades-estado que acabarían formando los primeros reinos centralizados. Se tienen en consideración yacimientos amurallados del reino de Koguryo (en el norte), de las confederaciones tribales Samhan como las ciudades-estados de Wirye y Saro (en el sur), y de los distritos administrativos del imperio chino en corea (comandancias Han). Ante las turbias y polémicas interpretaciones nacionalistas de las diferentes tradiciones historiográficas del Asia Oriental (Corea, Japón y China), se defiende aquí el papel de la antigua civilización China como estímulo y origen de influencias avanzadas para el desarrollo de la arquitectura militar coreana, junto al urbanismo y a la organización de estructuras estatales, entre otros factores.

 


This article aims to analyze archaeologically the fortifications of the protohistoric period of Korea (300 BC – 300 AD), comprising the embankments, palisades and moats of the first urban centres as well as possible border walls, in a key moment in the social, political, cultural and architectonic evolution of the peninsula, of transition from villages to cities and from tribal chiefdoms to the confederation of small city-states that eventually formed the first centralized kingdoms. It is taken into account walled sites of the Koguryo kingdom (in the north), of the Samhan tribal confederations like the city-states of Wirye and Saro (in the south), and of the administrative districts of the Chinese empire in Korea (Han commanderies). Given the murky and controversial nationalist interpretations of the different East Asian historiographical traditions (Korea, Japan and China), we will try to situate within its context the emergence of the urban military architecture in the peninsula and the nearby area, considering the constructions undertaken both by Chinese authorities and by the first Korean confederacies. We will try to place the emergence of the urban military architecture of the peninsula and the nearby area within its context, considering the constructions undertaken both by Chinese authorities and by the first Korean confederacies.


Palabras clave


Fortificaciones; arquitectura militar; Asia; Corea; China = Fortifications; military architecture; Asia; Korea; China.

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


AHN, Yonson (2008): “The contested heritage of Koguryo/Gaogouli and China-Korea Conflict”, The Asia-Pacific Journal 6, pp. 1-16.

ALLEN, Chizuko T. (2014): “Kaya’s rise and trans-border activities in fifth-century Southern Korea”, 7th World Congress of Korean Studies, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.

BALE, Martin T. (1999): Prehistoric settlement and production in the Nam River Valley, South Korea, tesis de Master, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.

BALE, Martin T. (2001): “The archaeology of early architecture in the Korean Peninsula: And update on recent developments”, Bulletin of the Indo Pacific Prehistory Association 21 (5), pp. 77-84.

BALE, Martin T. (2008): “Archaeological heritage management in South Korea: The Nam River dam project”, Early Korea 1. Reconsidering early Korean history through archaeology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachussetts, pp. 213-233.

BARNES, Gina L. (1988): “Walled sites in Three Kingdoms settlement patterns”, Papers of the 5th International Conference for Korean Studies, Academy for Korean Studies, Songnam: 436-464.

BARNES, Gina L. (1991): “The archaeology of the capital cities of the Three Kingdoms of ancient Korea”, Koreana: ten years of Korean studies at the University of Sheffield, 1979-1989, Sheffield.

BARNES, Gina L. (1999): The rise of civilization in East Asia. The archaeology of China, Korea and Japan, Thames & Hudson, London.

BARNES, Gina L. (2001): State formation in Korea. Historical and archaeological perspectives, Curzon, Surrey.

BARNES, Gina L. (2015): Archaeology of East Asia. The rise of civilization in China, Korea and Japan, Oxford Books, Oxford.

BARTHOLOMEW, Peter (2013): “Korean fortresses”, Korea Magazine, April 2013, 4-12.

BEST, Jonathan W. (2006): A history of the early Korean kingdom of Paekche (Baekje), together with an annotated translation of The Paekche Annals of the Samguk Sagi, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

BYINGTON, Mark E. (2002): “The creation of an ancient minority nationality: Koguryo in Chinese historiography”, Embracing the other: The interaction of Korean and foreign cultures (Proceedings of the 1st World Congress of Korean Studies), The Academy of Korean Studies, Songnam.

BYINGTON, Mark E. (2003): A history of the Puyô state. Its people and its legacy, tesis doctoral, Harvard University.

BYINGTON, Mark E. (2004): “The war of words between South Korea and China over an ancient kingdom: Why both sides are misguided”, History News Network, 9 October, http://historynewsnetwork.org/article/7077

BYINGTON, Mark E. (2009): “The account of the Han in the Sanguozhi. And annotated translation”, Early Korea 2. The Samhan period in Korean history, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachussets, pp. 125-152.

BYINGTON, Mark E. (2016): The sncient state of Puyo in Northeast Asia. Archaeology and historical memory, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachussets.

BYINGTON, Mark E. et alii (2008-2012): Early Korea, 3 vols, Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Massachusetts).

BYINGTON, Mark E. et alii (2013): The Han commanderies in Early Korean history, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

CAMBRIDGE = AA.VV. (1986): The Cambridge history of China. Volume 1. The Ch’in and Han Empires, 221 BC – AD 220, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

CHANG, Chun-shu (2007): The Rise of the Chinese Empire. Volume 2. Frontier, Immigration, & Empire in Han China, 130 B.C. – A.D. 157, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.

CHOE, Sogg Yong (1997): Ilche ui tonghwa ideologi ui ch’angch’ul (=The invention of the Japanese imperial ideology of assimilation), Sogyong Munhwa Press, Seoul.

CHONG, In-Song (2001): “Nangnang t’osông kwa ch’ôndonggi chejak” (=Nangnang earthen fortress and bronze production), Tôkyô Daigaku Bungakubu Kôkogaku Kenkyûshitsu kiyô 16, pp. 59-82.

CHÔSEN = GOVERNMENT GENERAL OF CHÔSEN (1915-1935): Chôsen Koseki Zufu (=Illustrations of Korean antiquities), 13 vols., Chôsen Sôtokufu, Seoul.

CHOGI = AA.VV. (1997): Chogi Kukka. Kojoson, Puyo, Samhan, Kuksa Pyonchan Wiwonhoe (=The Committee for the Compilation of National History), Seoul.

DENÈS, Laurece (2000): “L’Age du Fer dans le sud-ouest de la péninsule coréenne d’après les données archéologiques”, Arts asiatiques 55, pp. 120-136.

DI COSMO, Nicola (2002): Ancient China and its enemies. The rise of nomadic power in East Asian history, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

HAN, Young-Woo (2010): A review of Korean history, 3 vols, Kyongsaewon, Paju-Gyeonggido.

HAN, Mi-Ja & KIM, Hyo-Hyoung & KIM, Sung-Cherl & YOU, Hong-June & JUNG, Ha-Yun (2007): Seoul. A field guide to history, Dolbegae, Paju-Gyeonggido.

HUNDT, David & HE, Baogang (2016): “Reconciliation and the Goguryeo/Gâogôulì disputes between China and South Korea”, Routledge handbook of memory and reconciliation in East Asia, Routledge, New York, pp. 227-239.

HYUNG, Il-Pai (2000): Constructing Korean Origins. A critical review of archaeology, historiography and racial myth in Korean state formation theories, Harvard University Asia Center, Cambridge (Massachusetts).

ILYON (2006): Samguk Yusa. Legends and history of the Three Kingdoms of ancient Korea, Yonsei University Press, Seoul.

ISAMU, Takahashi (1937): “Hon nendo Rakurô dojô hakkutsu gaikyô” (=Brief description of the present year’s excavation at Nangnang earthen fortress), Kôkogaku zasshi 27 (8), pp. 547-550.

IM, Ki-hwan (1998): “Koguryô chôn’gi sansông yôn’gu. Koguryô sansông ûi kich’ojôk kômt’o (I)” (=Study of early Koguryo mountain fortresses. The basic review of Koguryo mountain fortresses, I), Kuksagwan nonch’ong 82, pp. 47-98.

IMANISHI, Ryû (1936): Chôsen koshi no kenkyû (=A study of ancient Korean history), Chikazawa Shoten, Keijô (Seoul).

JAN, Michel & MICHAUD, Roland & MICHAUD, Sabrina (2000): Die Chinesische mauer (=The Great Wall of China), Hirmer, München.

JU, Bo Don (2009): “Problems concerning the basic historical documents related to the Samhan”, Early Korea 2. The Samhan period in Korean history, Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Massachussets), pp. 95-122.

JUNG, In-Seung (2013): “The material culture of Lelang commandery”, The Han commanderies in Early Korean history, Korea Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp. 137-164.

JUNG, Yong-Jo & PARK, Joo-Sung & SIM, Woo-Kyung (2010): “Gyeongju wolseongui haejae daehan gochal” (= Consideration on the Moat of Wolseong Fortress at Gyuongju), Hangug Jeontong Jogyeong Haghoeji (=Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape), vol. 28, nº 2, pp. 37-44.

KANG, Bong-Won (1995): The role of warfare in the formation of state in Korea. Historical and archaeological approaches, tesis doctoral, University of Oregon, Eugene.

KANG, Hyung-Sook (2008): “New perspectives of Koguryô archaeological data”, Early Korea 1, Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Massachusetts), pp. 13-64.

KIM, Y.K. et alii (1987): Excavation report of the Northeast locality at Mongchon Tosong, Seoul National University Museum, Seoul (en coreano).

KOGURYO = AA.VV. (2005): The capital cities of Koguryo viewed from the satellite, Koguryo Yon’gu Chaedan (=Koguryo Research Foundation), Seoul (en coreano).

KOMAI, Kazuchika (1965): Rakurogun chishi (The site of the seat of local government of Lelang in Korea), Kokôgaku Kenkyû, Tokyo University Kokôgaku Kenkyû Shitsu, Tokyo.

KIM, Pusik (2011): The Koguryo Annals of the Samguk Sagi, The Academy of Korean Studies Press, Seongnam.

KIM, Pusik (2012): The Annals of Silla of the Samguk Sagi, The Academy of Korean Studies Press, Seongnam.

LEE, K.B. (2007): Godae doshi Gyeongju eui tansaeng (=The birth of an ancient city: Gyeongju), Pureunyoksa, Seoul.

LEE, Jae-Hyun (2009): “The interregional relations and developmental processes of Samhan culture”, Early Korea 2. The Samhan period in Korean history, Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Massachussets), pp. 61-94.

LEE, Injae & MILLER, Owen & PARK, Jin-Hoon & YI, Hyun-Hae (2012): Korean history in maps. From Prehistory to the Twenty-First Century, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

LEE, Rachel J. & BALE, Martin T. (2016): “Social change and household geography in Mumun period South Korea”, Journal of Anthropological Research 72, vol. 2, pp. 178-199.

LIM, Jie-Hyun (2008): “The antagonistic complicity of nationalisms. On nationalist phenomenology in East Asian history textbooks”, East Asian history textbooks. Contested views of a common past: Historical revisionism in contemporary East Asia, Verlag, Frankfurt, pp. 197-214.

MONGCHON = AA.VV. (1985): Excavation report of Mongchon Tosong, Mongchon Tosong Palgul Chosadan, Seoul (en coreano).

MOON, Chang Rho (2012): “Research on Kaya history and issues of academic debate”, Early Korea 3. The rediscovery of Kaya in history and archaeology, Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Massachussets), pp. 49-104.

MUNHWAJAE = MUNHWAJAE KWALLIGUK (1976): Excavation report of the Songsan shellmound in Oedong, Masan, Seoul (en coreano).

NANTA, Arnaud (2015): “L’organisation de l’archéologie antique en Corée coloniale (1902-1940): du terrain aux musées coloniaux”, Ebisu 52, pp. 117-154.

NEEDHAM, Joseph et alii (1971): Science and civilization in China, vol. 4, part III. Civil engineering and nautics, Cambdridge University Press, London–New York.

NEEDHAM, Joseph et alii (1994): Science and civilization in China, vol. 5, part VI. Military technology: missiles and sieges, Cambdridge University Press, Cabridge–New York.

NELSON, Sarah Milledge (1993): The archaeology of Korea, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

NELSON, Sarah M. (1995): “The politics of ethnicity in prehistoric Korea”, Nationalism, politics and the practice of archaeology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (Massachussets), pp. 218-231.

NISHIKAWA, Hiroshi (1970): “Nihon teikoku shûgika ni okeru Chôsen kokogaku no keisei” (=The establishment of Korean archaeology during the era of Japanese imperialism), Chôsenshi kenkûkai ronbunshû 7, n. 6, pp. 94-116.

NISHITANI, Tadashi (2006): “Toward the study of the history of Koguryo. Koguryo relics listed as World Cultural Heritage”, Journal of Inner and East Asian Studies vol. 3, n. 1, pp. 109-124.

NOH, Taedon (2014): Korea’s ancient Koguryo kingdom. A socio-political history, Global Oriental, Leiden-Boston.

OH, Hyundok & SHIN, Jongwoo (2004): “Gyeongju Wolseong jihayugue daehan GPR tamsajalyoui gogohagjeog haeseog” (=Archaeological interpretation of GPR data appied on Wolseong fortress in Gyeongju), Mullitamsa (=Geophysical Exploration), vol. 7, nº 4, pp. 256-261.

O, Yong-Chan (2006): Nangnang-gun yôngu (=A study of Lelang Commandery), Sagyejol, Seoul.

PAI, Hyung Il (1994): “The politics of Korea’s past: The legacy of Japanese colonial archaeology in the Korean peninsula”, East Asian History 7, pp. 25-48.

PAI, Hyung Il (1999): “Nationalism and preserving Korea’s buried past: The Office of Cultural Properties and Archaeological Heritage Management in South Korea”, Antiquity 73, pp. 618-625.

PAI, Hyung Il (1999): “Japanese anthropology and the discovery of prehistoric Korea”, Journal of East Asian Archaeology 1, pp. 353-382.

PAI, Hyung Il (2000): Constructing “Korean origins”. Archaeology, historiography and racial myth, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachussetts.

PAI, Hyung Il (2001): “The creation of National Treasures and Monuments: The 1916 Japanese laws on the preservation of Korean remains and relics and their colonial legacies”, The Journal of Korean Studies 25, n. 1, pp. 72-95.

PAI, Hyung Il (2010): “Re-surrecting the ruins of Japan’s mythical homelands: Colonial archaeological surveys in the Korean peninsula and heritage tourism”, The handbook of post-colonialism and archaeology, Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, California, pp. 93-112.

PARK, Seon-Yong et alii (2007): A basic research on mountain fortress in central inland area of Korea, The Korea Fortress Academy, Chungcheongbuk-do Province, Cheongju.

PARK, Jong-Boon & KIM, Hyo-Hyoung & KIM, Sung-Cherl & YOU, Hong-June & LEE, Moon-Ok & YOHAN DUVERNAY, Nicholas (2007): Gyeongju. A field guide to history, Dolbegae, Paju-Gyeonggido.

PARK, Hae-Woon (2012): “Archaeogical research on Kaya: Past, present and future”, Early Korea 3. The rediscovery of Kaya in history and archaeology, Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Massachussets), pp. 105-168.

PÉREZ GARCIA, Víctor Lluís (2010): Anàlisi comparativa dels feudalismes japonès i europeu: aspectes militars i fortificacions, Vision Libros, Madrid.

PÉREZ GARCIA, Víctor Lluís (2016): “La difusión de la planta urbana ortogonal china en los siglos VI-VIII: Corea y Japón”, ArqueoWeb 17, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, pp. 1-23.

PUNGNAP = AA.VV. (2002): Pungnap Tosong II (=Pungnap walled site, vol. 2), Kungnip Munhwajae Yonguso, Seoul.

RHEE, Song-Nai (1989): “Secondary state formation: The case of stone cists of Early Korea”, Circum-Pacific Prehistory Conference: Bringing a million years of human heritage to Washington State (August 1-6, Seattle), vol. 3, Pacific northeast Asia in prehistory: hunter-fisher-gatherers, farmers, and sociopolitical elites, Washington State University Press, Washington.

SAWYER, Ralph D. (2011): Ancient Chinese Warfare, Basic Books, New York.

SCHINZ, Alfred (1996): The magic square. Cities in Ancient China, Edition Axel Menges, Suttgart-London.

SEKINO, Tadashi (1925): Rakurogun jidai no iseki (=Archaeological remains of the Lelang period). Special report of the investigation of ancient remains, vol. 4, Tôkyô.

SEKINO, Tadashi (1938): Bukkokuji to sekkutsuan (=Pulguk Temple and Sòkkuram Cave in Keishu), Chôsen hômotsu koseki zuroku daiichi (=Album of Korean antiquities), vol. 1, Bunseidô, Kyôto.

SEKINO, Tadashi (1941): “Kôkuri no Heijô oyobi Chôanjô ni tsuite” (=On Koguryo’s Pyongyang and Changan-song), Chôsen no kenchiku to seijutsu (=Korean Architecture and art), Iwanami Shoten, Tokyo.

SHAOBAI, Li (2003): The Wild Great Wall, People’s Fine Arts Publishing House, Beijing.

SHINYA, Shoda (2008): “A brief introduction to rescue archaeology in South Korea”, Early Korea 1. Reconsidering early Korean history through archaeology, Harvard University, Cambidge, Massachussetts, pp. 201-212.

SHÔGO, Oda (1935): Taihô-gun oyobi sono yiseki (=Daifang Commandery and its remains), Chôsen Sôtokufu, Keijô–Seoul, 1935.

SIT, Victor (2010): Chinese city and urbanism. Evolution and development, New Jersey.

SLOANE, Jesse D. (2014): “Parhae in historiography and archaeology”, Seoul Journal of Korean Studies 27, no. 1 (June 2014), pp. 1-35.

STEINHARDT, Nancy Shatzman (1999): Chinese imperial city planning, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.

SONG, Ho-Jung (2013): “Old Chosôn. Its history and archaeology”, The Han commanderies in Early Korean history, Korea Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp. 49-80.

SUEMATSU, Y. (1958): “Japan’s relations with the Asian continent and the Korean peninsula (before 950 AD)”, Cahiers d’histoire mondiale 4.3, pp. 671-687.

SUNGSI, Lee (2013): “The Samhan, Ye and Wa in the time of the Lelang and Daifang commanderies”, The Han commanderies in Early Korean history, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp. 165-189.

TAKASHI, Hatada (1966): Chôsen shi nyûmon (=Introduction to Korean history), Taihei, Tokyo.

TAKASHI, Hatada (1967): Chôsen no rekishi o dô oshieru ka (=How should we teach the history of Korea?), Ryûkei Shôsha, Tokyo.

TAKASHI, Hatada (1969a): Nihonjin no Chôsenkan (=The Japanese view of Korea), Keisô Shobô, Tokyo.

TAKASHI, Hatada (1969b): A history of Korea, ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, California.

TAKASHI, Hatada et alii (1981): Shin Chôsen shi nyûmon (=Introduction to a new history of Korea), Ryûkei Shôsha, Tokyo.

TOYONOBU, Tani (1995): “Rakurô-gun jidai no dojô” (=Earthen fortresses of the Lelang period), Gekkan Kôkogaku Jânaru (=Monthly Archaeological Journal), September 1995, pp. 5-8.

TRIGGER, Bruce (1984): “Alternative archaeologists: Nationalist, colonialist, imperialist”, Man 19, n. 3, pp. 355-370.

TURNBULL, Stephen (2007): The Great Wall of China 221BC-AD 1644, Osprey Publishing, Oxford.

TURNBULL, Stephen (2009): Chinese walled cities 221 BC-1644, Osprey Publishing, Oxford.

XU, Stella et alii (2016): Reconstructing ancient Korean history. The formation of Korean-ness in the shadow of history, Lexington Books, Lanham, Maryland.

YI, K. Y. (1996): Han’guk Munhwajae Sunansa (=The tortuous history of Korea’s cultural relics), Tolbege, Seoul.

YI, Hyunhae (2009): “The formation and development processes of Samhan culture”, Early Korea 2. The Samhan period in Korean history, Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Massachussets), pp. 17-59.

YIN, Yang et alii (2005): The eternal Great Wall, China National Art Photograph Publishing House, Beijing.

YO, Ho-gyu (1998): Koguryo song 1. Amnokkang chung-sangnyu p’yon (=Koguryo fortresses 1. Yalu River middle and upper reaches), Kukpang Kunsa Yonguso, Seoul.

YUN, Yong-Chin (1968): “Investigation of the wall at Taegu Talsong”, Kogo Misul 9.11/100, pp. 500-501 (en coreano).

WALDRON, Arthur (1990): The Great Wall of China : from history to myth, Cambridge University Press, Cambdridge–New York.

WEI, Cuncheng (1994): Koguryo archaeology, Jilin University Press, Jilin (en chino).

WENREN, Jun (2012): Ancient Chinese encyclopedia of technology. Translation and annotation of Kaogong ji, the Artificers’ Record, Routledge, London-New York.

WU, Liangyong (1986): A Brief history of ancient Chinese city planning, Urbs et regio 38, Gesamthochschulbibliothek, Kassel.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5944/etfi.10.2017.17502

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.


Copyright (c) 2017 Victor Lluís Pérez Garcia

URL de la Licencia: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

Revistas Espacio, Tiempo y Forma. Series I-VII
Espacio, Tiempo y Forma, Serie I, Prehistoria y Arqueología (ISSN: 1131-7698; eISSN: 2340-1354)
Facultad de Geografía e Historia. UNED 
Calle Senda del Rey, 7
28040 - MADRID (España) 
Teléfonos: +34 91.398.67.13 / 67.03 
E-mail: revista-etf@geo.uned.es

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial 4.0 Internacional.